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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Utilization of Turkey Manure As Granular Activated Carbon: Physical, Chemical and Adsorptive Properties

Authors
item Lima, Isabel
item Marshall, Wayne

Submitted to: Waste Management
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 9, 2004
Publication Date: February 21, 2005
Citation: Lima, I.M., Marshall, W.E. 2005. Utilization of turkey manure as granular activated carbon: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties. Waste Management. 25(7):726-732.

Interpretive Summary: The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production exceeding a quarter of billion turkeys yearly, make them an attractive material to make granular activated carbons, GAC. GACs are high porosity materials utilized for environmental remediation. Pelletized samples of turkey manure were converted to GACs using a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded that of two commercial GACs used for comparison. GACs from turkey litter and cake showed considerable commercial potential to remove metal ions from water. These value-added carbons can create new markets for turkey manure, a new and renewable inexpensive source for GACs and a cleaner environment.

Technical Abstract: The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production exceeding a quarter of billion turkeys yearly, makes it an attractive feedstock for carbon production. Pelletized samples of turkey litter and cake were converted to granular activated carbons (GACs) by steam activation. Water flow rate and activation time were changed to produce a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant, yields varied from 23% to 37%, surface area varied from 248 to 472 m2/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.72 to 1.86 mmoles Cu2+/g carbon. Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded the values for the two commercial GACs. GACs from turkey litter and cake showed considerable commercial potential to remove metal ions from water.

Last Modified: 8/29/2014
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