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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Extruded Plastic Material Made from Meat and Bone Meal and Sodium Caseinate Is Plasticized by Water

item Garcia, Rafael
item Onwulata, Charles
item Ashby, Richard

Submitted to: American Chemical Society National Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2003
Publication Date: March 15, 2004
Citation: Garcia, R.A., Onwulata, C.I., Ashby, R.D. 2004. Extruded material made from meat and bone meal and sodium caseinate is plasticized by water [abstract]. 227th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Paper No. AGFD0010.

Technical Abstract: Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a high protein agricultural commodity which currently has few applications other than as animal feed. Unmodified MBM has poor functional properties, due to its low solubility. Our results from pilot-plant trials demonstrate that MBM can be extrusion-processed along with sodium caseinate to produce a useful plastic material. We developed this material for use as a dog chew toy. For this application, elastic modulus (stiffness) is a key material characteristic. Our results detail the relationship between ambient relative humidity and equilibrium moisture content (MC) in the material. The influence of MC on glass transition temperature and elastic modulus reflect the plasticization of this material by water. Based on comparison to a commercially available dog chew, the range of stiffness achievable with our extruded material, 0.25-2.50 GPa, encompasses values that are appropriate for a dog chew. Our results show that a particular desired stiffness can be maintained by applying an edible moisture barrier to the surface of the material; this moisture barrier prevents the material from equilibrating with the surrounding environment.

Last Modified: 4/17/2015