Submitted to: Foot-And-Mouth Disease
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: December 26, 2003
Publication Date: August 1, 2004
Citation: Baxt, B., Rieder, A.E. 2004. Molecular Aspects of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Virulence and Host Range: Role of Host Cell Receptors and Viral Factors. Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Current Perspectives. 145-172. Technical Abstract: Since foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was discovered to be the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) over 100 years ago, research has been directed at understanding the biology of the virus so as to be able to control this devastating disease of livestock. We have developed much knowledge over the last 30-40 years on how the virus replicates, its basic structure, and the structure of its proteins and nucleic acid. Yet, even though FMD has been controlled in developed countries through the widespread use of an inactivated virus vaccine, the inability to effectively control the virus in developing countries threatens worldwide livestock and related industries, in addition to its affect on broader economies. New technologies have now afforded us the means to control this disease both with new generation vaccines and antiviral therapies. In order to take advantage of the latter approach, detailed molecular knowledge of both host and viral factors which control the virulence and the host range of the virus is necessary. This article focuses on the cellular receptor for the virus which controls organ and host tropism, and on viral factors which are known to control either host range or virulence of the virus.