Submitted to: Journal of British Columbia Entomological Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 9, 2003
Publication Date: June 1, 2004
Citation: Knight, A.L. 2004. Testing an attracticide hollow fiber formulation for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. 100:71-78 Interpretive Summary: A new approach using the sex pheromone of codling moth for control of this important pest was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. Chopped hollow fibers mixed with insecticide were evaluated for their activity in directly killing male moths and for the disruption of moth communication. We found that moths did not touch the fibers until they had aged for one week and under field conditions fibers aged more than one week were no longer sticky enough to transfer a lethal dose of insecticide to the moths. We also found that the spray application of fibers in the field deposited < 5% of the fibers in the canopy of the orchard. The highest proportion of fibers was found initially on the upper surface of leaves and this position also had the highest level of fiber retention. Fibers on the underside of leaves or partially hanging off of a substrate were dislodged within two weeks. Disruption of moth communication in an orchard treated with fibers was good for several weeks. Further refinements in the initial emission rate of pheromone and in the adhesive used with the fiber are needed to improve this approach for control of codling moth.
Technical Abstract: Tests evaluated the use of a sprayable formulation of chopped hollow fibers loaded with codlemone and mixed with 1.0% esfenvalerate and an adhesive to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Moths were not repelled by the addition of the insecticide to the adhesive and were rapidly killed following brief contact. A significantly greater proportion of male moths flew upwind and contacted individual fibers for a longer period of time when fibers had been aged > 7 d versus fibers 0 ' 7 days-old in flight tunnel tests. Field tests using sentinel fibers found that fibers were not touched until they had aged > 8 d. Conversely, moth mortality following a 3-s exposure to field-collected fibers deposited on the top of leaves was low in bioassays with fibers aged > 8 d. Thus the effectiveness of this formulation as an attracticide was limited. The reduction in male moth catch by virgin female-baited exceeded 90% for three weeks. The deposition and adhesion of fibers within the apple canopy appears to be two major factors influencing the success of this approach. Fibers were found adhered to foliage, fruit, and bark within the orchard; however, visual recovery of fibers following each of the three applications was < 5.0%. Both the substrate and the positioning of the fiber on the substrate influenced fiber retention. The highest proportion of fibers was found initially on the upper surface of leaves and this position also had the highest level of fiber retention. Fibers on the underside of leaves or partially hanging off of a substrate were dislodged within two weeks.