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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Relationships of monocots based on the highly informative cpDNA gene ndhF: evidence for widespread concerted convergence.

Authors
item Givnish, T - UNIV OF WI, MADISON
item Pires, J - UNIV OF WI, MADISON
item Graham, S - UNIV OF ALBERTA, EDMONTON
item Mcpherson, M - UNIV OF ALBERTA, EDMONTON
item Prince, L - RANCHO SANTA ANA BOTAN GA
item Patterson, T - UNIV OF WI, MADISON
item Rai, H - UNIV OF ALBERTA, EDMONTON
item Roalson, E - WASHINGTON STATE UNIV
item Evans, T - DEPT OF BIOLOGY HOPE COLL
item Hahn, W - COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
item Millam, K - UNIV OF WI, MADISON
item Meerow, Alan
item Molvray, M - UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
item Kores, P - UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
item O'Brien, H - UNIV OF ALBERTA, EDMONTON
item Hall, J - HARVARD UNIVERSITY
item Kress, W - SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
item Sytsma, K - UNIV OF WI, MADISON

Submitted to: Aliso
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 19, 2004
Publication Date: June 30, 2006
Citation: Givnish, T.J., Pires, J.C., Graham, S.W., Mcpherson, M.A., Prince, L.M., Patterson, T.B., Rai, H.S., Roalson, E.H., Evans, T.M., Hahn, W.J., Millam, K.C., Meerow, A.W., Molvray, M., Kores, P.J., O'Brien, H.E., Hall, J.C., Kress, W.J., Sytsma, K.J. 2006. Relationships of monocots based on the highly informative cpDNA gene ndhF: evidence for widespread concerted convergence. Aliso 22: 27-50.

Interpretive Summary: Sequence variation in the chloroplast gene ndhF was used to estimate relationships across the monocotyledons, based on 282 taxa representing 74 of 92 monocot families and all 12 monocot orders. The resulting phylogeny is highly resolved and supports the common ancestry for all groups recognized by studies with other genes. We also show that that net venation and fleshy fruits have evolved upon invasion of shaded habitats, and reverted to parallel venation and dry, passively dispersed fruits upon invasion of open, sunny habitats. In fact, net venation has arisen at least 26 times in monocots and been lost 8 times, while fleshy fruits have arisen 22 times and been lost 11 times. Both traits arose together at least 15 times and been lost together five times.

Technical Abstract: We use sequence variation in the chloroplast-encoded gene ndhF to reconstruct relationships across the monocotyledons, based on 282 taxa representing 74 of 92 monocot families and all 12 monocot orders. The resulting phylogeny is highly resolved and supports the monophyly of all clades recognized by APG II, with the exception of a polyphyletic Laxmanniaceae. Commelinids are sister to Asparagales, and both are sister to Liliales-Pandanales in the strict consensus; Pandanales is sister to Dioscoreales in the bootstrap majority-rule tree, just above Japonolirion, representing Petrosaviales. Acorales is sister to all other monocots, with Alismatales basalmost among the latter. Relationships among the four major clades of commelinids ' Arecales, Dasypogonales, Poales, and Commelinales-Zingiberales ' remain unresolved. Based on functional arguments, we hypothesized that net venation and fleshy fruits should both evolve ' and thus undergo concerted convergence ' upon invasion of shaded habitats, and revert to parallel venation and dry, passively dispersed fruits upon invasion of open, sunny habitats. In fact, net venation has arisen at least 26 times in monocots and been lost 8 times, while fleshy fruits have arisen 22 times and been lost 11 times. Both traits arose together at least 15 times and been lost together five times.

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