Submitted to: Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 5, 2003
Publication Date: January 1, 2004
Citation: Safranski, T.A., Carroll, J.A. 2004. Supplementation with diadzein has little effect on weaned pig response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 3(2):74-80. Interpretive Summary: A study was conducted to determine the effects of daidzein supplementation to young pigs on the febrile response caused by lipopolysaccharide. Daidzein is a compound isolated from soybeans and other legumes that has been implicated as an anti-cancer agent. In this study, pigs were given a dose of daidzein daily for 14 days. Pigs were then administered lipopolysaccharide, which causes a fever. Blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures were monitored. Cortisol, a stress hormone that increases when lipopolysaccharide is administered, was measured from the blood samples. There was no difference in body weight, average daily gain, or cortisol concentrations of pigs supplemented with daidzein when compared to control pigs. There was no difference in rectal temperature, except at 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, at which time pigs that were supplemented with daidzein had decreased rectal temperature. This study indicates that daidzein did not have a dramatic effect on the febrile response of young pigs, but that it may show some potential for decreasing rectal temperature. This information will be of interest to individuals working in the area of swine productivity, including scientists, extension personnel, and swine producers.
Technical Abstract: Daidzein is a phytoestrogen isoflavone found in soybeans and other legumes, and has been implicated as a cancer preventive. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of daidzein supplementation on weaned pigs on pig growth and response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Forty crossbred barrows were removed from their sows and allowed a period of 5 d to acclimate to new housing and dry feed. After that time, pigs were weighed, individually penned, and assigned to either daidzein (D; n=20) or control (C; n=20) treatment. The D pigs received 50 mg/d daidzein (LC Laboratories, Woburn, MA) hand-fed in dough balls, and C pigs received dough balls without D. After 14 d, all pigs were weighed, non-surgically cannulated in the jugular vein, and assigned to rectal temperature (RT) measurement or blood collection groups according to treatment. The following day, blood samples and rectal temperatures were collected at 30 min intervals from -1 to 4 hr post-LPS challenge. At time 0, all pigs received a 50 ug/kg dose of LPS through the jugular cannulae. Serum was collected from all blood samples and stored at -80 degrees C until assayed for cortisol concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Data for BW, ADG, serum concentrations of cortisol, and rectal temperature were analyzed using ANOVA in StatView. There was no difference (P > 0.72) in initial BW, with average BW of 8.36 +/- 1.13 and 8.24 +/- 0.93 kg for D and C pigs, respectively. There was no difference (P > 0.50) in final BW, with average BW of 15.30 +/- 2.30 and 15.73 +/- 1.65 kg for D and C pigs, respectively. Similarly, there was no difference (P = 0.18) in ADG (0.46 +/- 0.10 kg/d D; 0.50 +/- 0.07 kg/d C). There was no treatment by time interaction (P > 0.66) for serum concentrations of cortisol; however, there was a significant effect of time (P < 0.0001), with cortisol concentrations increasing over time. Similar to cortisol, RT increased (P < 0.0001) over time in both D and C pigs. There was a trend (P < 0.12) for decreased RT in D as compared to C pigs, with RT decreasing in D pigs by 4 hrs post-LPS challenge when compared to C pigs that demonstrated no decrease in RT by 4 hrs post-LPS challenge. This study suggests that daidzein might provide some beneficial protection against an immune challenge.