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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Feeds, Feeding, and Physiology: Bringing Everyone to the Table

Author
item Riche, Martin

Submitted to: International Sustainable Marine Fish Culture Conference and Workshop Book of Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 30, 2003
Publication Date: October 8, 2003
Citation: Riche, M.A. 2003. Feeds, feeding, and physiology: bringing everyone to the table [abstract]. International Sustainable Marine Fish Culture Conference and Workshop Book of Abstracts. p. 9.

Technical Abstract: A successful feeding management strategy is the cornerstone of successful animal production units. Maximum production is the focus of developing industries, which gives way to increased efficiency in a mature industry. This is critical to the U.S. aquaculture industry to reduce cost and be competitive. To achieve increased efficiency a more holistic and multidisciplinary approach integrating technologies in feeds and feed ingredients, feeding and animal behavior, farm management, and environmental and physiological interactions is needed. Feeds Research to develop non-traditional feed ingredients, and improvements in conditioning, processing and storage of ingredients is needed. Additionally, refined manufacturing technologies can increase pellet stability, palatability, nutrient integrity, and bioavailability. Evaluation of selected, or genetically modified crops, with enhanced nutrient composition or decreased anti-nutritional components should be encouraged. Feeds are currently manufactured using least-cost feed formulation; however, this approach requires known nutrient requirements and digestibility coefficients, both of which are lacking for most species. Development of rapid onsite assays for the analysis of critical components would lead to more precise diets, and allow farm managers to predict nutrient loading. A flexible national database of ingredients with physical and biochemical composition and standardized identifiers would enhance consistency. Feeding Development of species and life stage specific feeding strategies including feeding frequency, feeding times, feed rates, and feeding rhythms and how they effect return to appetency, nutrient utilization, efficiency, and product quality is imperative. Research on the effect of photoperiod, season, water quality, stocking density, and other environmental factors on feed intake, feeding activity, and efficiency is needed. Behavioral and social interactions that control appetency and energy requirements need to be evaluated. Physiology The effect of diet density and composition on the endocrine and neuronal systems, and their regulation of food intake need to be determined. Understanding the relationship between gustatory stimulation, feed attractants, and feed stimulants could increase feed intake. Evaluation of bioenergetics and metabolic effects of feeding and nutrient partitioning on fish health and product quality is needed for all life stages. Associative and inhibitory effects of dietary nutrients should be evaluated. Understanding protein turnover, synthesis, and growth as well as nutrient and gene interactions would increase growth rate, efficiency, animal health, and product quality. Further research is also warranted in designing aquaculture products with enhanced human health benefits through tissue incorporation of bioactive dietary components.

Last Modified: 7/23/2014