Submitted to: Nutrition Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 16, 2003
Publication Date: September 16, 2003
Citation: Kerr, B.J. 2003. Update on amino acid nutrition of swine and poultry. Nutrition Conference Proceedings. P. 172-198.
Optimizing nutrient utilization in swine and poultry if vital in maintaining economical meat production in light of environmental concerns associated with agriculture. As crystalline amino acids become more plentiful and economical for inclusion into animal feeds, it is critical to understand amino acid limitations in feed formulations. Crystalline lysine was first produced in the U.S. some 20 years ago. Since then, the U.S. market for lysine has grown substantially with a concomitant decline in the unit price. In addition, production facilities for the fermentation of crystalline tryptophan and threonine, and chemical production of methionine, have also expanded rapidly in the U.S. The relationship of commercially available methionine, lysine, tryptophan, and threonine at economical prices with relatively high protein prices has lead most swine and poultry producers to supplement many of these amino acids into their rations. As environmental concerns grow and as livestock nutritionists understand amino acid nutrition and balance to a greater degree, it becomes increasingly important to not only understand the nutrient needs of these methionine, lysine, tryptophan, and threonine; but also of the next limiting amino acid, namely isoleucine and valine. Although isoleucine and valine are not produced in the U.S., they are available to the livestock industry at a relatively economical cost. In addition, utilization of various co-products in livestock feed formulations results in several of these amino acids being limiting for optimal animal production. Data in this presentation summarizes and discusses recent research on these amino acids in light of optimizing sow lactation performance; pig growth, efficiency, and carcass composition; and broiler performance and lean tissue production.