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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effects of Drinking Water Treatment Residue on Phosphorus in Runoff from Poultry Litter

Authors
item Codling, Eton
item Isensee, Allan

Submitted to: Communication in Plant and Soil Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 27, 2004
Publication Date: May 18, 2005
Citation: Codling, E.E., Isensee, A.R. 2005. Effects of drinking water treatment residue on phosphorus in runoff from poultry litter. Communication in Plant and Soil Analysis. 36(9&10):1263-1275.

Interpretive Summary: Application of poultry litter to cropland is based on the nitrogen needs of the crop and such practice has resulted in excess buildup of soil phosphorus (P) in the poultry producing areas of Maryland. Water Extractable Phosphorus (WEP) concentrations in runoff from many of these fields are above the EPA drinking water limit of 0.1 mg kg-1. Soils with WEP concentration above the drinking water limit could negatively impact surface water quality through eutrophication. A laboratory runoff study was conducted to evaluate the effect of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) on WEP and FeO--P in runoff from poultry litter. Poultry litter was treated with DWTR at rates of 0, 50, and 100 g kg-1 (dry weight basis) and incubated for two weeks at 25o C. The treated and untreated poultry litter were surface applied to one third of 100 cm soil box. Water extractable P in the runoff decreased with increase rate of DWTR. Total P released in runoff from the 50 and 100 g kg-1 DWTR treatments was 79 and 91 percent lower than no--DWTR treatment respectively. There was a strong correlation between water extractable and FeO--P in the runoff samples. This study showed that DWTR was effective in reducing WEP and FeO--P from poultry litter in runoff.

Technical Abstract: The application of poultry litter to cropland is based on the nitrogen needs of the crop, and such practice has resulted in excess buildup of soil phosphorus (P). Water Extractable Phosphorus (WEP) concentrations in runoff from these fields are above the EPA drinking water limit of 0.1 mg kg-1. Runoff studies have been conducted on poultry litter amended soils to determine the effect of aluminum (Al) on WEP and iron oxide adsorbable phosphorus (FeO--P). The drinking water treatment residue used in this experiment is an Al rich byproduct that is produced during drinking water purification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of DWTR to reduce WEP and FeO--P concentrations in runoff from poultry litter using a laboratory rainfall simulator. Poultry litter was collected from three poultry farms on Maryland Eastern Shore, air--dried and crushed to < 2 mm, treated with DWTR at rates of 0, 50, and 100 g kg-1 (dry weight basis), and incubated for two weeks at 25o C. Water extractable P and FeO--P in the runoff decreased with increase DWTR application. The total P released in runoff from the 50 and 100 g kg-1 DWTR treatments were 79 and 91 percent lower than no DWTR treatment respectively. There was a strong correlation between WEP and FeO--P in the runoff samples. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of DWTR to poultry litter effectively reduced phosphorus in runoff.

Last Modified: 12/17/2014