Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Iron Availability of a Fortified Processed Wheat Cereal: a Comparison of 14 Fe Forms Using An in Vitro Digestion/caco-2 Model

Authors
item Wortley, Gary - CORNELL UNIVERSITY
item Leusner, Steven - GENERAL MILLS
item Good, Carolyn - GENERAL MILLS
item Gugger, Eric - GENERAL MILLS
item Glahn, Raymond

Submitted to: British Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 4, 2004
Publication Date: October 1, 2004
Citation: Wortley, G., Leusner, S., Good, C., Gugger, E., Glahn, R.P. 2004. Iron availability of a fortified processed wheat cereal: a comparison of 14 fe forms using an in vitro digestion/caco-2 model. British Journal of Nutrition. 93:65-71.

Interpretive Summary: The availability of 14 iron (Fe) fortificant forms in a wheat-based breakfast cereal was measured using a simulated digestion cell culture model. Those displaying promising increases in Fe availability were further assessed under simple meal conditions. The Fe forms initially assessed were: reduced (control), carbonyl, electrolytic, FePO4, FeSO4, FeCO3, Na2FeEDTA, Ferrochel (Fe-bis-glycinate), encapsulated Fe-fumarate, FeSO4, Fe-lactate and Biofer (FeSO4), SQM (polysaccharide complexed FeSO4) and Sun-Active. Increased Fe uptake was observed in all Fe forms compared to unfortified cereal, and in the following relative to the control: electrolytic (52%); Fe fumarate (30-35%); Sun-Active (78%); Ferrochel (125%) and Na2FeEDTA (291%). Recent human studies have shown similar data with respect to Ferrochel, FeSO4 and Na2FeEDTA with the latter being more bioavailable. We observed that the addition of milk to FeSO4 fortified cereal increased iron availability; but this availability was markedly decreased by the addition of coffee to the digest. Conversely a loss in availability from Na2FeEDTA was observed with the addition of milk; however, the addition of coffee did not markedly affect Fe availability from this form. The addition of milk to cereals containing Ferrochel, FeSO4, Sun Active, a mixture of reduced Fe and Na2FeEDTA or reduced Fe increased Fe availability (the behavior after the addition of coffee was not assessed). This study highlights the importance of considering the interaction between the fortified foodstuffs and other components of the meal (such as milk and coffee with a breakfast) when considering optimising the iron bioavailability within a foodstuff by fortification.

Technical Abstract: The availability of 14 iron (Fe) fortificant forms in a wheat-based breakfast cereal was measured using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Those displaying promising increases in Fe availability were further assessed under simple meal conditions. The Fe forms initially assessed were: reduced (control), carbonyl, electrolytic, FePO4, FeSO4, FeCO3, Na2FeEDTA, Ferrochel (Fe-bis-glycinate), encapsulated Fe-fumarate, FeSO4, Fe-lactate and Biofer (FeSO4), SQM (polysaccharide complexed FeSO4) and Sun-Active. Increased Fe uptake was observed in all Fe forms compared to unfortified cereal, and in the following relative to the control: electrolytic (52%); Fe fumarate (30-35%); Sun-Active (78%); Ferrochel® (125%) and Na2FeEDTA (291%). Recent human studies have shown similar data with respect to Ferrochel®, FeSO4 and Na2FeEDTA with the latter being more bioavailable. We observed that the addition of milk to FeSO4 fortified cereal increased iron availability; but this availability was markedly decreased by the addition of coffee to the digest. Conversely a loss in availability from Na2FeEDTA was observed with the addition of milk; however, the addition of coffee did not markedly affect Fe availability from this form. The addition of milk to cereals containing Ferrochel, FeSO4, Sun Active, a mixture of reduced Fe and Na2FeEDTA or reduced Fe increased Fe availability (the behavior after the addition of coffee was not assessed). This study highlights the importance of considering the interaction between the fortified foodstuffs and other components of the meal (such as milk and coffee with a breakfast) when considering optimising the iron bioavailability within a foodstuff by fortification.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page