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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The Effect of Calcium Salts, Ascorbic Acid and Peptic Ph on Calcium, Zinc and Iron Bioavailabilities from Fortified Human Milk

Authors
item Etcheverry, Paz - CORNELL UNIVERSITY
item Wallingford, John - WYETH-AYERST
item Miller, Dennis - CORNELL UNIVERSITY
item Glahn, Raymond

Submitted to: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 17, 2004
Publication Date: July 1, 2005
Citation: Etcheverry, P., Wallingford, J., Miller, D., Glahn, R.P. 2005. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic ph on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 75:171-178.

Interpretive Summary: For premature infants, the breast milk does not meet the nutritional needs of these infants during the critical early weeks postpartum. Adding human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits for these infants. Absorption of minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc are important minerals to a "preemie" and the bioavailability of which are highly influenced by proteins, pH and vitamins present in the milk. In this study, mineral availability of commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion pH at 2 or 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) and addition of three calcium salts. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium and iron uptake, however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin formation, but had no effect on calcium and zinc uptake. This type of study enables HMF product manufacturers to balance mineral nutrition with other aspects of the HMF, such as protein content and multi-mineral bioavailability, thereby improving the nutrition, development and ultimately the survival and well-being of "preemies."

Technical Abstract: The calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities of commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion pH at 2 or 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of CPPs, a-lactalbumin, colostrum and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) calcium, zinc and iron, and ascorbic acid (AA), in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were FM-85, SHMF and EHMF. They were prepared according to instructions included on the packages. All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium and iron uptake, however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin formation, but had no effect on calcium and zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Iron uptake levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake.

Last Modified: 12/20/2014
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