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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: COLLECTION AND EVALUATION OF THE ENDEMIC CALIFORNIA SERPENTINE SUNFLOWER

Authors
item Seiler, Gerald
item Gulya, Thomas

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 11, 2003
Publication Date: November 1, 2003
Citation: Seiler, G.J., Gulya Jr, T.J. 2003. Collection and evaluation of the endemic california serpentine sunflower [abstract]. Crop Science.

Interpretive Summary: The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, H. exilis, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for improving cultivated sunflower. The objectives of this study were to collect populations of serpentine sunflower, and determine the oil concentration, fatty acid composition, and screen plants for Puccinia helianthi (rust), and Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew) resistance. The highest oil concentration observed in 25 populations of serpentine sunflower from northern CA was 324 g/kg. Four major fatty acids were observed in the oil, saturated palmitic and stearic acids, monounsaturated oleic acid, and polyunsaturated linoleic acid. Palmitic acid ranged from 66 to 83 g/kg, while stearic acid varied from 37 to 69 g/kg. Linoleic acid varied from 660 to 761 g/kg, and oleic acid varied from 95 to 165 g/kg. The fatty acid profile of serpentine sunflower oil had a high linoleic concentration for populations occurring in high temperature environments, averaging 720 g/kg. Resistance to downy mildew, race 730, varied from 0 to 94% in the serpentine populations, while resistance to race 4 of rust varied from 0 to 100%. Sufficient variability appears to be present in serpentine sunflower for selection and improvement of the cultivated sunflower.

Technical Abstract: The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, H. exilis, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for improving cultivated sunflower. The objectives of this study were to collect populations of serpentine sunflower, and determine the oil concentration, fatty acid composition, and screen plants for Puccinia helianthi (rust), and Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew) resistance. The highest oil concentration observed in 25 populations of serpentine sunflower from northern CA was 324 g/kg. Four major fatty acids were observed in the oil, saturated palmitic and stearic acids, monounsaturated oleic acid, and polyunsaturated linoleic acid. Palmitic acid ranged from 66 to 83 g/kg, while stearic acid varied from 37 to 69 g/kg. Linoleic acid varied from 660 to 761 g/kg, and oleic acid varied from 95 to 165 g/kg. The fatty acid profile of serpentine sunflower oil had a high linoleic concentration for populations occurring in high temperature environments, averaging 720 g/kg. Resistance to downy mildew, race 730, varied from 0 to 94% in the serpentine populations, while resistance to race 4 of rust varied from 0 to 100%. Sufficient variability appears to be present in serpentine sunflower for selection and improvement of the cultivated sunflower.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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