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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Soil Fumigation and Oxamyl Drip Applications for Nematode and Insect Control in Vegetable Plasticulture

Authors
item Desaeger, J - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Csinos, A - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Timper, Patricia
item Hammes, G - DUPONT COMPANY
item Seebold, K - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

Submitted to: Annals of Applied Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 12, 2003
Publication Date: August 1, 2004
Citation: Desaeger, J., Csinos, A., Timper, P., Hammes, G., Seebold, K. 2004. Soil fumigation and oxamyl drip applications for nematode and insect control in vegetable plasticulture. Annals of Applied Biology. 145:59-70.

Interpretive Summary: A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of oxamyl in combination with the soil fumigants 1,3-D, metam sodium and methyl bromide on nematode damage and fruit yield in vegetables. Tests were conducted in Tifton, GA, USA over 5 seasons, from 2000 till 2002, using four different vegetables: squash, cucumber, pepper and eggplant. Soil fumigation alone, irrespective of application method or formulation, gave excellent control of the southern root-knot nematode in all but one test. Oxamyl by itself did not provide control of the root-knot nematode, but insect populations on eggplant were reduced. Out of three tests that included oxamyl by itself, root galling was reduced only on eggplant when nematode pressure was very low. When oxamyl was applied in combination with pre-plant soil fumigation, small but consistent reductions in root galling were observed. Greatest reductions in galling due to oxamyl were found when fumigation provided less than optimal nematode control. Application timing of oxamyl did not seem to have much impact on nematode infection, but applications early in the season, preferably starting at planting, appear to be beneficial. Stubby root nematode populations were low and variable in most tests, but neither fumigation nor post-plant nematicide applications seemed to have any effect on soil populations at harvest. Crop yields were often significantly greater when oxamyl followed fumigation, as compared to fumigation only, which could be due to a reduction in root-knot nematode damage (and in case of eggplant also reduced foliar damage by insects), and/or to a carbamate growth stimulant response. The previous tests indicate the potential of oxamyl to reduce root-knot nematode infection and increase yields of vegetables when combined with soil fumigation with 1,3-D and/or metam sodium. More research is required to understand the effect of crop type, pest pressure, preceding fumigant (1,3-D or metam sodium) and injection duration of oxamyl.

Technical Abstract: A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of oxamyl in combination with the soil fumigants 1,3-D, metam sodium and methyl bromide on nematode damage and fruit yield in vegetables. Tests were conducted in Tifton, GA, USA over 5 seasons, from 2000 till 2002, using four different vegetables: squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena). In the eggplant test, insect populations were monitored. Soil fumigation alone, irrespective of application method or formulation, gave excellent control of root-knot nematode in all but one test. Oxamyl by itself did not provide control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), but insect populations on eggplant were reduced. Out of three tests that included oxamyl by itself, root galling was reduced only on eggplant when nematode pressure was very low. When oxamyl was applied in combination with pre-plant soil fumigation, small but consistent reductions in root galling were observed. Greatest reductions in galling due to oxamyl were found when fumigation provided less than optimal nematode control. Application timing of oxamyl did not seem to have much impact on nematode infection, but applications early in the season, preferably starting at planting, appear to be beneficial. Stubby root nematode populations were low and variable in most tests, but neither fumigation nor post-plant nematicide applications seemed to have any effect on soil populations at harvest. Crop yields were often significantly greater when oxamyl followed fumigation, as compared to fumigation only, which could be due to a reduction in root-knot nematode damage (and in case of eggplant also reduced foliar damage by insects), and/or to a carbamate growth stimulant response. The previous tests indicate the potential of oxamyl to reduce root-knot nematode infection and increase yields of vegetables when combined with soil fumigation with 1,3-D and/or metam sodium. More research is required to understand the effect of crop type, pest pressure, preceding fumigant (1,3-D or metam sodium) and injection duration of oxamyl.

Last Modified: 11/23/2014
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