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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Host Plant and Temperature Effects on Lysiphlebus Testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a Native Parasitoid of the Exotic Brown Citrus Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors
item Weathersbee Iii, Albert
item MCKENZIE, CINDY
item Tang, Y.Q. - ORANGE COUNTY, FL

Submitted to: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2003
Publication Date: December 17, 2003
Citation: WEATHERSBEE III, A.A., MCKENZIE, C.L., TANG, Y. HOST PLANT AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON LYSIPHLEBUS TESTACEIPES (HYMENOPTERA: APHIDIIDAE), A NATIVE PARASITOID OF THE EXOTIC BROWN CITRUS APHID (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE). ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 2003.

Interpretive Summary: The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), is an exotic pest of citrus in the United States that was introduced into Florida in 1995. Biological control initiatives against this pest have included the evaluation of both native and exotic predators and parasitoids as natural enemies. The native parasitoid, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), has demonstrated acceptance of the brown citrus aphid as a host in the laboratory. In this experiment, we evaluated citrus variety and temperature as factors potentially influencing the ability of L. testaceipes to parasitize and develop on the brown citrus aphid. L. testaceipes parasitized a similar proportion (range: 34 - 36%) of aphids on all five citrus varieties that were tested. Adult parasitoid emergence was highest on 'Duncan grapefruit' (82%) and lowest on 'Mexican lime' (63%). The female sex ratio was higher on "Duncan grapefruit' (81%) than on any of the other varieties. The developmental period for L. testaceipes on the brown citrus aphid declined from 21 d to 9 d within the temperature range 18-27°C. The developmental threshold was 10.4°C and the degree-day (DD) requirement for development was 158.7 DD. The results indicate that the temperature conditions and major citrus crops in Florida are conducive to L. testaceipes parasitism and development on the brown citrus aphid.

Technical Abstract: The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), is an exotic pest of citrus in the United States that was introduced into Florida in 1995. Biological control efforts for the brown citrus aphid have included the release of exotic parasitoids and exploitation of native parasitoids and predators. The native parasitoid, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has demonstrated acceptance of the brown citrus aphid as a host in the laboratory. Several factors may influence the parasitoids ability to parasitize and develop on the host. This experiment evaluated the effect of citrus host plants on brown citrus aphid parasitism by L. testaceipes, and the effect of temperature on development of the parasitoid. The levels of parasitism achieved by L. testaceipes were similar among brown citrus aphid populations on five citrus varieties used as host plants for the aphids (range: 34 - 36%). The percent adult emergence was highest on 'Duncan grapefruit' (82%), and significantly lower on 'Mexican lime' (63%) than on any of the other citrus varieties. The female sex ratio of the emerged parasitoid adults was significantly higher on "Duncan grapefruit' (81%) than on any of the other varieties. The developmental period for both male and female L. testaceipes on the brown citrus aphid declined from 21 d to 9 d with ascending temperatures in the range 18-27°C. The developmental threshold was 10.4°C and the degree-day (DD) requirement for development was 158.7 DD, indicating that the temperature conditions experienced in Florida are conducive to rapid development of L. testaceipes on the brown citrus aphid.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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