Submitted to: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 22, 2004
Publication Date: June 20, 2005
Citation: Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Hodges, G.S., Davidson, J.A. 2005. Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. agriculture. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 107:123-158.
Interpretive Summary: Scale insects are pests that feed on many of the world's agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants. It is critical to know which species of scales are of economic importance. This paper identifies those invasive pest species that are established in the United States and represent a substantial impact to U.S. agriculture. The paper identifies principal host plants, pest status, date of establishment or eradication in the U.S., and probable origin of the insect. Information is provided about trends of pest introductions and on native scale-insect pests in the United States. This paper will be of special interest to quarantine personnel at both the federal and state levels and has important implications on world trade issues.
We provide information on 252 species of scale insects that are considered adventive or introduced in the United States. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: the state and earliest collection date in which the invader was first discovered; whether it is currently established in the United States; its pest status in the United States along with a validation citation; its principal hosts; and its zoogeographical region of origin. Information is provided about trends of pest introductions and native scale-insect pests in the United States.