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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Patulin

Authors
item Jackson, Lauren - FDA/NCFST, SUMMIT-ARGO
item Dombrink Kurtzman, Mary Ann

Submitted to: CRC Press
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 21, 2004
Publication Date: August 26, 2005
Citation: Jackson, L.S., Dombrink Kurtzman, M. 2005. Patulin. In: Sapers, G.M., Gorny, J.R., Yousef, A.E., editors. Microbiology of Fruits and Vegetables. 1st edition. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press. p.281-311.

Interpretive Summary: Methods for detection of the mycotoxin patulin, both protocols currently used and novel means in development, are described. Apple juice, apple juice concentrates and apple juice products in commercial production are examined for the presence of patulin. This is done to comply with regulations that have been established by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The majority of methods used are those that have undergone a collaborative study and have become AOAC Official Methods. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography for detection and quantification is most commonly used. Recent methods involving the use of solid-phase extraction columns for extraction of patulin are described. These latter methods merit a collaborative study so that their use can be incorporated into an AOAC Official Method.

Technical Abstract: Monitoring of patulin in apple juice, apple juice concentrates and apple juice products is performed to comply with guidelines of the United States Food and Drug Administration. The majority of the methods currently used are based on AOAC Official Methods involving liquid-liquid extraction of patulin with ethyl acetate, followed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection and quantification. If there is need for confirmation of the amount of patulin in the product, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is performed. Both basic principles and recent developments in patulin analysis are discussed in this review. The AOAC Official Methods, based on thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, are described. The confirmatory method of GC/MS is detailed. In addition, development of recent methods involving the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges for extraction of patulin, instead of liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, are described. Final detection in both cases is by high-performance liquid chromatography. The various steps of the methods are discussed, including extraction, cleanup, and separation and detection by chromatography. Important factors affecting the detection of patulin and its stability are stressed. With a look to the future, potential new means of detection are proposed.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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