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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Genome Mapping

Authors
item Faris, Justin
item Friebe, Bernd - KANSAS STATE UNIV.
item Gill, Bikram - KANSAS STATE UNIV.

Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Grain Science
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: April 5, 2004
Publication Date: October 1, 2004
Citation: Faris, J.D., Friebe, B., Gill, B.S. 2004. Genome mapping. Encyclopedia of Grain Science. p. 7-16.

Interpretive Summary: Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as `landmarks¿ along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of interest. There are two types of genome mapping: physical mapping and genetic linkage mapping, in which distances are measured in base pairs and recombination frequency, respectively. This article discusses the molecular basis for DNA markers, and the current methods used to detect them. DNA markers closely linked to genes/traits of interest can be used by plant breeders to introgress the desired traits into elite germplasm more efficiently compared to conventional means of selection. Different types of segregating populations can be used for genetic linkage mapping, but physical mapping relies on the use of appropriate genetic stocks. When combined, genetic linkage maps and physical maps provide a powerful tool for deciphering the locations of genes and recombination along the chromosomes. Comparative mapping is commonly used to evaluate the synteny of closely related plant species and provides insights regarding evolution. Presently, high-density maps are being used in conjunction with BAC physical mapping for the purpose of gene discovery and isolation. This work provides the basis for future sequencing of whole genomes.

Technical Abstract: Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as `landmarks¿ along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of interest. There are two types of genome mapping: physical mapping and genetic linkage mapping, in which distances are measured in base pairs and recombination frequency, respectively. This article discusses the molecular basis for DNA markers, and the current methods used to detect them. DNA markers closely linked to genes/traits of interest can be used by plant breeders to introgress the desired traits into elite germplasm more efficiently compared to conventional means of selection. Different types of segregating populations can be used for genetic linkage mapping, but physical mapping relies on the use of appropriate genetic stocks. When combined, genetic linkage maps and physical maps provide a powerful tool for deciphering the locations of genes and recombination along the chromosomes. Comparative mapping is commonly used to evaluate the synteny of closely related plant species and provides insights regarding evolution. Presently, high-density maps are being used in conjunction with BAC physical mapping for the purpose of gene discovery and isolation. This work provides the basis for future sequencing of whole genomes.

Last Modified: 7/31/2014
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