Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Prospects for Inundative Release of Natural Enemies for Biological Control of Anoplophora Glabripenni

Authors
item Smith, Michael
item Fuester, Roger
item Herard, Frank - USDA ARS EBCL FRANCE
item Hanks, Larry - UNIV. OF ILLINOIS

Submitted to: USDA Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: October 20, 2003
Publication Date: January 20, 2004
Citation: Smith, M.T., Fuester, R.W., Herard, F., Hanks, L. 2004. Prospects for inundative release of natural enemies for biological control of anoplophora glabripenni. USDA Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species. January 14-17, 2003. Annapolis, MD. p.55-61.

Interpretive Summary: Asian Longhorn Beetle (ALB) is native to China and Korea, where it is a serious pest of deciduous broadleaf tree species, particularly poplars, willows, elms and maples. It is widespread in China, found in parts of at least 25 provinces. ALB is thought to have been accidentally introduced into the U.S. in solid wood packing materials originating from China, with breeding populations discovered in New York City and Long Island (1996), Chicago, Illinois (1998) and Jersey City, NJ (2002). By September 1, 2002, 5,888 and 1,545 trees had been found infested, cut and removed in New York and Chicago, respectively. For the lumber, maple syrup, tourist and other forest-related industries, costs in survey, detection and management costs, and lost revenues could mount into the billions of dollars. Furthermore, a recent report projects that if ALB spreads to urban trees across North America, there could be a loss of 35% of total shade cover (1.2 billion trees) and a compensatory value loss of $669 billion. This is especially important for homeowners, because takedown costs for a dead tree can reach $1,000 or even more. Moreover, air conditioning costs can increase substantially due to shade loss. Eradication of ALB currently relies primarily upon: (1) detection of infested trees that are then cut and chipped, and (2) injection of trees with systemic insecticides that target adult beetles feeding on trees and/or larva feeding within infested trees. However, detection of infested trees relies solely on visual surveys, which are labor-intensive, costly, and only ca. 30-60% effective. Furthermore, use of systemic insecticides is labor-intensive and costly, and thought to be primarily effective against adult beetles. Therefore, to counter these challenges the objectives of this research are to discover, develop, and utilize biological control agents: (1) that possess good dispersal and host searching capability; (2) that are highly effective parasitoids; (3) that can be efficiently reared and released in large numbers; and (4) for which an operationally feasible distribution system and protocol can be developed for effective delivery within the APHIS eradication program. The biological control approach that lends itself best to eradication is inundative release of parasitoids. Inundative biological control involves the release of large numbers of mass-produced biological control agents to reduce pest populations without necessarily achieving establishment. Three approaches to selecting effective natural enemies are under consideration: (1) importation of natural enemies known to attack ALB in the Far East, (2) importation of natural enemies known to attack closely related longhorn beetles in Europe, and (3) discovery of native natural enemies in the U.S. that are capable of attacking ALB. Promising natural enemies in the Far East include a small bethylid wasp that parasitizes ALB larvae and a small colydiid beetle that parasitizes ALB larvae and pupae. Natural enemies from Europe that might prove useful include a small eulophid wasp and two parasitic flies that attack the larvae. Imported natural enemies will be studied in quarantine to see if they present a substantial risk to native non-target organisms. If so, the third approach will receive greater emphasis. Because ALB has shown a strong preference for maples and poplars, natural enemies of native longhorned beetles that attack these trees are of special interest. The most promising candidates appear to be the following: sugar maple borer, poplar borer, poplar-butt borer, and cottonwood borer.

Technical Abstract: The cerambycid, Anoplophora glabripennis, is native to China and Korea, where it is a serious pest of deciduous broadleaf tree species, particularly Acer spp., Populus spp. Salix spp., and Ulmus spp. It is widespread in China, occurring in at least 25 provinces. ALB is thought to have been accidentally introduced into the U.S. in solid wood packing materials originating from China, with breeding populations discovered in New York City and Long Island (1996), Chicago, Illinois (1998) and Jersey City, NJ (2002). By September 1, 2002, 5,888 and 1,545 trees had been found infested, cut and removed in New York and Chicago, respectively. For the lumber, maple syrup, tourist and other forest-related industries, costs in survey, detection and management costs, and lost revenues could mount into the billions of dollars. Furthermore, a recent report projects that if ALB spreads to urban trees across North America, there could be a loss of 35% of total canopy cover (1.2 billion trees) and a compensatory value loss of $669 billion. Eradication of ALB currently relies primarily upon: (1) detection of infested trees that are then cut and chipped, and (2) injection of trees with systemic insecticides that target adult beetles should they feed on trees and/or larva feeding within infested trees. However, detection of infested trees relies solely on visual surveys, which are labor-intensive, costly, and only ca. 30-60% effective. Furthermore, use of systemic insecticides is labor-intensive and costly, and thought to be primarily effective against adult beetles. Therefore, to counter these challenges the objectives of this research is to develop and utilize biological control agents: (1) that possess good dispersal and host searching capability; (2) that are highly effective parasitoids; (3) that can be efficiently reared and released in large numbers; and (4) for which an operationally feasible distribution system and protocol can be developed for effective delivery within the APHIS eradication program. The biological control approach of choice for eradication, which is the focus herein, is inundative release of parasitoids. Inundative biological control is the release of large numbers of mass-produced biological control agents to reduce pest populations without necessarily achieving establishment. Three approaches to selecting effective natural enemies are under consideration: (1) importation of natural enemies known to attack ALB in the Far East, (2) importation of natural enemies known to attack closely related cerambycids in Europe, and (3) discovery of native natural enemies in the U.S. that are capable of attacking ALB. Promising natural enemies in the Far East include the ectoparasites Sclerodermus guani (Bethylidae) and Dastarcus longulus (Colydiidae). Natural enemies from Europe that might prove useful include Euderus albitarsis (Eulophidae), a parasitoid of early instars; Billaea inornata (Tachinidae), a parasitoid of late instars; and an unidentified tachinid that attacks early instars. Imported natural enemies will be studied in quarantine to see if they present a substantial risk to native non-target organisms. If so, the third approach will receive greater emphasis. Because ALB has shown a strong preference for maples and poplars, natural enemies of native cerambycids that attack these trees are of special interest. The most promising candidates appear to be the following: Glycobius speciosus, Saperda calcarata, Xylotrechus obliteratus, and Plectrodera scalator.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page