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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Methods for Measuring Glutathione Concentration and Rate of Synthesis

Authors
item Reid, Marvin - TROP METAB RSCH UNT
item Jahoor, Farook

Submitted to: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 20, 2000
Publication Date: September 20, 2000
Citation: REID, M., JAHOOR, F. METHODS FOR MEASURING GLUTATHIONE CONCENTRATION AND RATE OF SYNTHESIS. CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE. 2000. v. 3(5). p. 385-390.

Interpretive Summary: The gluthatione (y-glutamylcysteinylglycine; GSH) system is a major component of overall antioxidant defences [1]. GSH is synthesized de novo within all cells from glycine, cysteine and glutamate in a series of reactions catalysed by y-glutamylcysteinylglycine synthetase and glutathione synthetase. It is regenerated from glutathione disulphide (GSSG) by glutathione reductase [1]. GSH is consumed in the detoxification of electrophilic metabolites and xenobiotics, and is a very efficient free radical scavenger, protecting cells from the toxic effects of reactive oxygen compounds. Advances in chromatographic methods have allowed us to measure the GSH concentration in various biological tissues with greater precision. In addition, improvements in NMR as well as GC-MS technologies have enabled the development of convenient methods to measure GSH concentration and synthesis rates in vivo in humans, thereby increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the changes in GSH concentration in diseased states.

Technical Abstract: Altered y-glutamylcysteinylglycine homeostasis has been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases. The measurement of the rates of synthesis or loss of y-glutamylcysteinylglycine is necessary in order to make meaningful inferences about changes in y-glutamylcysteinylglycine concentration in these diseased states. In this review, we discuss methods for measuring y-glutamylcysteinylglycine concentration in biological samples as well as how improvements in the sensitivity of gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses have permitted the development of new and convenient stable isotope tracer methods for the in-vivo measurements of y-glutamylcysteinylglycine kinetics.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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