Submitted to: Preharvest and Postharvest Food Safety
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: April 9, 2003
Publication Date: May 3, 2004
Citation: Beier, R.C., Bischoff, K.M., Poole, T.L. 2004. Disinfectants (biocides) used in animal production: Antimicrobial resistance considerations. In: Beier, R.C., Pillai, S.D., Phillips, T.D., Ziprin, R.L., editors. Preharvest and Postharvest Food Safety: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional. p. 227-238. Technical Abstract: This review discusses antimicrobial resistance of clinical and animal derived bacterial isolates to biocides, and cross-resistance between antibiotics and biocides. Antibiotic resistance is discussed in relation to the Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 variant strain outbreak in Denmark in 1998. Biocide resistance concerning triclosan is discussed in relation to cross-resistance to antibiotics. The disinfectants chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are discussed in relation to resistance in clinical isolates and isolates obtained from animal production. Microbial resistance to either antibiotics or biocides is commonly due to efflux mechanisms, although other mechanisms of resistance are also used. Due to the efflux mechanism, the chance of cross-resistance between these two groups of chemicals is high.