Submitted to: Tilapias: Culture, Nutrition, and Feeding
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: May 19, 2003
Publication Date: September 27, 2006
Citation: Green, B.W. 2006. Tilapia fingerling production systems. Pages 181-210 in C.Lim, C. Webster (Eds). Tilapias: Biology, Culture, and Nutrition. Food Products Press. Binghamton, NY.
Interpretive Summary: Interpretive summary not required.
Fingerling production remains an important bottleneck to the continued expansion of tilapia aquaculture throughout the world. Throughout Asia, the Americas, and Africa, tilapia aquaculture continues to expand and represents an important source of fish to domestic and export markets. Development of effective techniques for mass production of monosex (male) tilapia fingerlings, specifically sex reversal technology, was an important factor contributing to the rapid development of tilapia aquaculture during the past decade. Transfer of fingerling production technologies from government hatcheries and universities to the private sector also contributed significantly to the consistent availability of fingerlings for grow-out.
Tilapia grow-out ponds are stocked with either mixed-sex or monosex (male) fingerlings. Mixed-sex tilapia fingerlings continue to be stocked in ponds that receive little to no fertilizer or supplemental feed input. Intensified tilapia aquaculture, where substantial applications of fertilizer and/or feed are made, depends primarily on stocking of monosex, especially sex reversed, fingerlings into grow-out ponds.
Tilapia seed (fertilized eggs, sac fry, or swim-up fry) can be produced in hapas, concrete or fiberglass tanks and earthen ponds. Incubation facilities are required where fertilized eggs and sac fry are collected. Production of fertilized eggs and sac fry requires more intensive management than harvest of swim-up fry from earthen ponds, but daily seed production is higher and total output can be greater.
Production methodologies, inter-spawning interval, incubation, fry rearing, hatchery phase fish health management, and fingerling nursery rearing are discussed in this chapter.