Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 7, 2003
Publication Date: January 8, 2003
Citation: Meredith Jr, W.R. 2003. Genetic Characteristics of Cotton Varieties in Textile Variety Tests. The Beltwide Proceedings. National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 7-9, 2003, New Orleans, Louisana. p. 2567-2573. Interpretive Summary: The National Regional High Quality (RHQ) Variety study and the ARS Textile Variety Tests (TVT) were coordinated so as to have six varieties common in both studies. Six varieties grown in two Mid-south locations produced large quantities of cotton so that they could be evaluated when processed in modern spinning mills. The RHQ study involved 19 varieties grown in replicated studies in nine Mid-south states. These tests provide a more accurate method of making variety comparisons for yield and fiber quality and their association across a broader array of varieties and environments. The coordination of the two types of tests allows for better total evaluation of new and promising lines of cotton. It helps in the communications between breeders and the textile industry. This, in turn, will speed up the production of new varieties with superior combinations of yield and fiber quality, thus reinforcing the entire USA cotton industry.
Technical Abstract: The USA is losing its textile industry to foreign competition. In turn, the cotton grower is losing its best customer, the USA textile industry. A modern textile industry needs modern fiber that can only be obtained through improved varieties. The National Regional High Quality (RHQ) is a variety test which evaluates the fiber quality potential of newly developed varieties and strains. In 2001, it was coordinated with a Textile Variety Test (TVT) that evaluated the spinning efficiency of a few varieties which were processed through modern ring, rotor, and vortex spinning units. The TVT involved evaluating eight bales/variety for cottons produced in South Georgia, Mississippi Delta, and West Texas. The number of varieties for each area was six, seven, and eight, respectively. The combination of variable environments and varieties produced a very variable population of fiber properties. In 2001, the RHQ evaluated 19 varieties and strains that were grown in nine states from the Carolinas to East Texas. The objective of the RHQ test was to provide a broader array of genotypes in which data obtained from the TVT could be used to predict what the value of the 19 varieties and other varieties would be in a modern textile mill. The six varieties common to Georgia and the Delta were grown in the RHQ. They showed similar fiber properties as when grown in the TVT. As in previous RHQ studies, there were large genetic variances for yield, and all arealometer, HVI, and AFIS fiber properties. Also, as in previous RHQ studies, yield was negatively correlated with desirable fiber traits. The correlation of yield with HVI length, strength, and micronaire was -0.33, -0.62, and 0.75, respectively. These results in the RHQ show that it can be an effective tool in reinforcing fiber quality and that increases in fiber quality will result in decreased yields.