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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Determining the Effect of Baking, Frying and Mixtamalization on Fumonisins by Means of in Vivo and in Vitro Bioassays

item Voss, Kenneth
item Norred, William
item Meredith, Filmore
item Riley, Ronald
item Bacon, Charles
item Saunders, D. Stephen - FRITO-LAY, INC., PLANO, T

Submitted to: US-Japan Coop Pgm on Dev and Util of Natural Products Abstracts Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 20, 2002
Publication Date: November 11, 2002
Citation: Voss, K.A., Norred, W.P., Meredith, F.I., Riley, R.T., Bacon, C.W., Saunders, D. 2002. DETERMINING THE EFFECT OF BAKING, FRYING AND MIXTAMALIZATION ON FUMONISINS BY MEANS OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO BIOASSAYS. US-Japan Coop Pgm on Dev and Util of Natural Products Abstracts Proceedings. November 11-15,2002. Emoryville, CA.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract only.

Technical Abstract: Fumonisin mycotoxins are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations under some conditions, but little is known about how cooking affects its biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corn cakes, and deep-fried corn fritters were made from corn meal spiked with Fusarium verticillioides culture material (CM) and then fed to male rats (n=5) for 2 weeks at high (1% w/w CM equivalents) or low (0.1 % CM equivalents) doses. Controls were fed 1% w/w sound corn. Toxic response to baked cornbread, pan-fried corn cakes, deep-fried fritters and the CM included decreased body weight gain (1% diets only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver pathology of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration (fumonisin B1 + B2) in the 1% w/w pan-fried corn cake diet (92 ppm) was slightly, but not significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the 1% w/w baked cornbread (132 ppm), deep-fried fritter (120 ppm) and CM (130 ppm) diets. In a second experiment, 10 g of corn, masa made from the corn, and tortilla chips made from the masa were extracted twice with 50 ml acetonitrile/water (1:1). Extracts were combined, dried, and redissolved in 1.0 ml DMSO. Vero cells were dosed with 4 µl of the redissolved extracts for 48 hr. The corn extract inhibited ceramide synthase as indicated by significantly increased cell sphinganine (Sa) concentrations (mean=132 pmole/well), whereas Sa was unaffected by the masa, baked chip and fried chip extracts (mean Sa 14-24 pmole/well). Fumonisin B1 concentrations of the masa and chips (3.6-6.7 µg/g) were likewise reduced 80-90% compared to the corn (32 µg/g). In summary, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or the concentration of fumonisins in corn-based foods, whereas nixtamalization reduced both biological activity and fumonisin concentration in masa. Importantly, these bioassays provided no evidence for the formation of unknown, biologically active fumonisins during cooking.

Last Modified: 4/17/2015