Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Nematode Densities in Year-Round Forage Production Systems Utilizing Manure Fertilization

Authors
item Timper, Patricia
item Newton, G - UNIV. OF GEORGIA
item Johnson, A - RETIRED/USDA ARS
item Gascho, G - UNIV. OF GEORGIA

Submitted to: Nematropica
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 14, 2004
Publication Date: February 14, 2005
Citation: Timper, P., Newton, G. L., Johnson, A. W., Gascho, G. J. 2004. Nematode densities in year-round forage production systems utilizing manure fertilization. Nematropica. 34(2):219-227.

Interpretive Summary: This research was part of a larger study to evaluate the efficiency of year-round forage production systems for utilizing manure waste. Two forage systems were evaluated: one was a corn-bermudagrass-rye rotation (CBR) and the other was a corn-corn-rye rotation (CCR). Liquid manure, applied at 14-day intervals with irrigation water, was compared to inorganic fertilizer applied as needed. The specific objective of the nematode study was to determine whether cropping system or frequent application of livestock manure affected populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. The soil was naturally-infested with several plant-parasitic nematodes. In some years, densities of ring and spiral nematodes were greater in CBR plots than in CCR plots, while the reverse was observed for lesion nematodes. Densities of stubby-root and lesion nematodes were consistently lower in the manure treatment than in the fertilizer treatment. When averaged across years, numbers/150 cm3 of soil in manure vs fertilizer plots were 79 vs 159 for lesion nematodes and 8 vs 16 for the stubby-root nematode. The other plant-parasitic nematodes were unaffected or inconsistently affected by nutrient source. Additional research is needed to determine the mechanism of nematode suppression when liquid manure is applied regularly to the crop. If ammonia accumulation is involved, then soil type and pH will be important factors in determining the efficacy of the treatment.

Technical Abstract: This research was part of a larger study to evaluate the efficiency of year-round forage production systems for utilizing dairy manure. Two forage systems were evaluated: the CBR system was a rotation of temperate corn (Zea mays L.), coastal bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers], and a mixture of rye (Secale cereale L.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.); and the CCR system was a rotation of temperate corn, tropical corn, and a mixture of rye and crimson clover. Application of liquid manure at 14-day intervals with irrigation water was compared to application of inorganic fertilizer based on crop recommendations. The specific objective of this portion of the study was to determine whether cropping system or frequent application of liquid dairy manure affected populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. The soil was naturally infested with Helicotylenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Paratrichodorus sp., and Pratylenchus spp.. Densities of Mesocriconema sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. tended to be greater in CBR plots than in CCR plots, while the reverse was observed for Pratylenchus spp. Densities of Paratrichodorus sp. and Pratylenchus spp. were consistently lower in the manure treatment than in the fertilizer treatment. When averaged across years, numbers per 150 cm3 of soil in manure vs fertilizer were 79 vs 159 for Pratylenchus spp. and 8 vs 16 for Paratrichodorus sp.. The other plant-parasitic nematodes were unaffected or inconsistently affected by nutrient source. Additional research is needed to determine the mechanism of nematode suppression when liquid dairy manure is applied regularly to the crop. If ammonia accumulation is involved, then soil type and pH will be important factors in determining the efficacy of the treatment.

Last Modified: 11/21/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page