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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Hot Water Immersion to Ensure Quarantine Security for Cryptophlebia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Sapindaceous Tree Fruits in Hawaii

item Follett, Peter
item Sanxter, Suzanne

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 24, 2001
Publication Date: October 1, 2001

Interpretive Summary: Lychee and longan are hosts for the quarantine pest Cryptophlebia in Hawaii. They are also hosts for pest fruit flies and therefore must receive a quarantine treatment before export. Hot water immersion at 49°C for 20 min. is an approved treatment for fruit flies. We tested whether this treatment will also disinfest fruit of Cryptophlebia. It did.

Technical Abstract: Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) and C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests of lychee, Litchi chinensis Sonn., and longan, Dimorcarpus longan (Lourd.) Steud., in Hawaii that potentially can interrupt export shipments. Hot water immersion at 49°C for 20 min. is an approved quarantine treatment developed to disinfest fruit of tephritid fruit flies. Studies were undertaken to determine whether this hot water immersion treatment would also disinfest fruit of any Cryptophlebia C. illepida eggs (1-d-old, 3-d-old), larvae (neonates, second/third instars, and fourth/fifth instars), and pupae (3-d-old, 7-d-old, 8-10-d-old, and 11-d-old) were treated in diet in vials at 49°C for 16 or 20 min. The most tolerant stage that occurs in harvested fruits is late (fourth and fifth) instars. Late instars of C. ombrodelta were determined to be significantly more tolerant of heat than those of C. illepida, and so late instar C. ombrodelta were used for large-scale tests. When 5,000 late instar C. ombrodelta were immersed in 49°C water for 20 min none survived. The hot water immersion quarantine treatment approved for Hawaii's lychees and longans will effectively disinfest fruit of any Cryptophlebia in addition to fruit flies.

Last Modified: 4/22/2015
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