Submitted to: Current Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 4, 2003
Publication Date: October 1, 2003
Citation: WHITEHEAD, T.R., COTTA, M.A. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HYPER-AMMONIA PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM SWINE MANURE STORAGE PITS. CURRENT MICROBIOLOGY. 2004. V. 48. P. 20-26. Interpretive Summary: Odor emanating from anaerobic lagoons and swine production facilities has increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odorous compounds, including ammonia, volatile organic acids and alcohols, and sulfides. However, the bacteria responsible for production of ammonia from stored manure have not been determined. We now report on the isolation and identification of bacteria from stored swine manure capable of producing large amounts of ammonia from amino acids and peptides. Many of the microorganisms have not been previously identified in nature. This information will be valuable in devising strategies to deal with the problem of ammonia produced from stored animals wastes.
Technical Abstract: Storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odorous compounds, including ammonia, organic acids and alcohols, and sulfides. Although the generation of these chemicals is the result of microbiological fermentation activity, until recently, little was known about the types of microorganisms responsible for their production. Results from our laboratory have demonstrated that the predominant microbial populations of stored swine manure are anaerobic, low (G+C), Gram-positive bacteria. However, studies on pure cultures isolated from manure have found few microorganisms that produce appreciable ammonia concentrations. Therefore, selective and enrichment techniques were employed to isolate ammonia-producing bacteria from stored swine manure using media containing peptone and amino acids as carbon and energy sources. We now report on the isolation of 40 bacterial cultures, a number of which are capable of producing at least 40 mM ammonia in peptone-amino acid medium, levels similar to those produced by hyper-ammonia producing (HAP) bacteria isolated from the rumen of cattle. The manure HAP isolates are phylogenetically distinct from the ruminal isolates and may prove to be intimately involved in the production of ammonia during storage of swine manure.