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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Cotton

Authors
item Wakelyn, Phillip - USDA,NCCA
item Bertoniere, Noelie
item Triplett, Barbara
item Thibodeaux, Devron
item French, Alfred
item Goynes, Wilton
item Hughs, S - USDA,ARS,SGL,MESILLA,NM
item Knowlton, James - USDA,AMS,CP,MEMPHIS,TN
item Norman, Bill - USDA, NCCA
item Lanclos, Dwight - USDA, NCCA

Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 24, 2003
Publication Date: August 3, 2004
Citation: Wakelyn, P.J., Bertoniere, N.R., Triplett, B.A., Thibodeaux, D.P., French, A.D., Goynes, W.R., Hughs, S.E., Knowlton, J.L., Norman, B.M., Lanclos, D.K. 2004. Cotton. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. p. 1-40.

Interpretive Summary: Cotton is both a fiber and food crop that is grown in about 80 countries. Annually in the world about 90 million 217.7 kg (480 Ibs) bales {~19.6 million metric tonnes (21.6 million tons) of cotton fiber and 27 million metric tonnes (29.8 million tons) of cottonseed are produced. Cotton is the most important natural fiber (about 37% of the textile fiber consumed in the world in 2002) used to produce apparel, home furnishings, and industrial products. Cottonseed is the world's No. 3 oilseed, used for vegetable oil, animal feed, and linters. Over 90% of the world's cotton production is upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and about 8% is extra long staple (G. barbadense). In 2002 transgenic varieties are about 25-30% of the cotton grown in the world. Commercial cottons are white. There has been some interest in naturally colored cottons (shades of brown and green are the main colors) and organic cotton but, at present, there is very little production of these cottons [<20,000 bales worldwide; < 4455 metric tonnes (4800 tons)]. The origin, biosynthesis, biology, development, production, harvesting ginning, classification, physical properties, morphology, physical structure, chemistry, reactivity, economic aspects, utilization, and health and safety are reviewed.

Technical Abstract: Cotton is both a fiber and food crop that is grown in about 80 countries. Annually in the world about 90 million 217.7 kg (480 Ibs) bales {~19.6 million metric tonnes (21.6 million tons) of cotton fiber and 27 million metric tonnes (29.8 million tons) of cottonseed are produced. Cotton is the most important natural fiber (about 37% of the textile fiber consumed in the world in 2002) used to produce apparel, home furnishings, and industrial products. Cottonseed is the world's No. 3 oilseed, used for vegetable oil, animal feed, and linters. Over 90% of the world's cotton production is upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and about 8% is extra long staple (G. barbadense). In 2002 transgenic varieties are about 25-30% of the cotton grown in the world. Commercial cottons are white. There has been some interest in naturally colored cottons (shades of brown and green are the main colors) and organic cotton but, at present, there is very little production of these cottons [<20,000 bales worldwide; < 4455 metric tonnes (4800 tons)]. The origin, biosynthesis, biology, development, production, harvesting ginning, classification, physical properties, morphology, physical structure, chemistry, reactivity, economic aspects, utilization, and health and safety are reviewed.

Last Modified: 10/26/2014
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