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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Cellulose

Authors
item French, Alfred
item Bertoniere, Noelie - COLLABORATOR SRRC
item Brown, R - U. TEXAS AT AUSTIN
item Chanzy, Henri - CERMAV-CNRS, FRANCE
item Glasser, Wolfgant - VA. POLYTECHNIC INST.
item Hattori, Kazuyuki - KITAMI INST. OF TECHNOL.
item Gray, Derek - PULP & PAPER RES. CENTRE

Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 17, 2003
Publication Date: May 4, 2004
Citation: French, A.D., Bertoniere, N., Brown, R.M., Chanzy, H., Glasser, W., Hattori, K., Gray, D. 2004. Cellulose. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. p. 360-394.

Interpretive Summary: This article covers nomenclature, sources, preparation, uses, microcrystalline cellulose, structural chemistry, reactions, solvents, and liquid crystals. Cellulose for commercial purposes comes mostly from wood and cotton, whereas cellulose for research comes from bacteria, algae, and ramie (also a textile fiber). Preparation includes pulping and purification, with an alternative method of steam explosion. The pore structure of cellulose is mentioned, along with the build-up of cellulose molecules into entire fibers. Emphasis is given to cellulose crystal structure. Recent research has provided definitive structures for two crystal forms. Most cellulose is a mixture of two crystalline phases. Cellulose solutions are important to the rayon and cellophane industries, and new solvents are of interest because they may lessen pollution and might permit commercial production of stronger cellulosic materials through the formation of liquid crystals. Figures include the chemical and physical structures of the molecule, including in solution, X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of a microfibril, and the unit cell structures of Cellulose I-IV.

Technical Abstract: This article covers nomenclature, sources, preparation, uses, microcrystalline cellulose, structural chemistry, reactions, solvents, and liquid crystals. Cellulose for commercial purposes comes mostly from wood and cotton, whereas cellulose for research comes from bacteria, algae, and ramie (also a textile fiber). Preparation includes pulping and purification, with an alternative method of steam explosion. The pore structure of cellulose is mentioned, along with the build-up of cellulose molecules into entire fibers. Emphasis is given to cellulose crystal structure. Recent research has provided definitive structures for two crystal forms. Most cellulose is a mixture of two crystalline phases. Cellulose solutions are important to the rayon and cellophane industries, and new solvents are of interest because they may lessen pollution and might permit commercial production of stronger cellulosic materials through the formation of liquid crystals. Figures include the chemical and physical structures of the molecule, including in solution, X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of a microfibril, and the unit cell structures of Cellulose I-IV.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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