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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Time-Mortality Relationships for Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) Life Stages Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

Authors
item Mahroof, Rizana - KANSAS STATE UNIV
item Subramanyam, Bh - KANSAS STATE UNIV
item Throne, James
item Menon, Anil - KANSAS STATE UNIV

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 14, 2003
Publication Date: July 31, 2003
Citation: MAHROOF, R., SUBRAMANYAM, B., THRONE, J.E., MENON, A. 2003. TIME-MORTALITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST) LIFE STAGES EXPOSED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY. 96(4):1345-1351.

Interpretive Summary: Heating the ambient air of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60°C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 hours is a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide, the standard treatment for these facilities. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments in the United States because methyl bromide is expected to be phased-out by the year 2005. We determined time-mortality relationships for eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, the major pest in food-processing facilities, exposed to six constant temperatures between 42 and 60°C. Mortality of each stage increased with temperature and exposure time, and, in general, young larvae were the most heat tolerant stage, especially at temperatures >50°C. Heat treatments aimed at controlling young larvae should therefore be able to control all other stages of the red flour beetle. These data provide the basis for successful use of elevated temperatures for management of red flour beetle life stages associated with food-processing facilities.

Technical Abstract: Heating the ambient air of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60°C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 hours is a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments in the United States because methyl bromide is expected to be phased-out by the year 2005. Very little quantitative information is available on responses of stored-product insect pests, including the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. We determined time-mortality relationships for eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of T. castaneum exposed to six constant temperatures between 42 and 60°C. Mortality of each stage increased with temperature and exposure time. In general, young larvae were the most heat tolerant stage, especially at temperatures >50°C. Exposure for a minimum of 7.2 h at 50°C was required to kill 99% of the young larvae, whereas the other stages required <1.8 h. Heat treatments aimed at controlling young larvae should therefore be able to control all other stages of T. castaneum. Young larvae also should be used as test insects to evaluate efficacy against T. castaneum during an actual facility heat treatment. These data provide the basis for successful use of elevated temperatures for management of T. castaneum life stages associated with food-processing facilities.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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