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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Intake by Children and Adults: Temporal Trends and Demographic Differences

Authors
item Nicklas, Theresa
item Hampl, Jeffrey - ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
item Taylor, Christopher - OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV
item Thompson, Victoria - BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MED

Submitted to: Nutrition Reviews
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 1, 2004
Publication Date: April 1, 2004
Citation: Nicklas, T., Hampl, J.S., Taylor, C.A., Thompson, V.J. 2004. Monounsaturated fatty acid intake by children and adults: temporal trends and demographic differences. Nutrition Reviews. 62(4):132-141.

Interpretive Summary: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may have a beneficial health effect. Twenty-four hour dietary intake data collected on 10-year-olds (n=1311) from 1978-1994 (Bogalusa Heart Study) and on children and adults (ages 0 to 30 years; CSFII 1994-96; n=7318) were examined for time, age, gender, ethnic, and geographic location differences in MUFA intake. Percent energy from MUFA decreased significantly (p<0.0001) from 1978 (14.1%) to 1994 (11.9%) with intake of oleic fatty acid decreasing (p<0.0001) from 33.9 g (1973) to 25.7 g (1994). In 1994-96, percent energy from MUFA was 13% for children and adults aged 12-30 years, with 5% from palmitoleic acid and 93% from oleic acid. Males and blacks had significantly (p<0.001) higher MUFA intake across all age groups than females and whites. Intakes of MUFA increased from 0-11 years to young adulthood (12-19 years) (p<0.0001), with no further increase at 20-30 years of age. Intakes of MUFA were lowest in the Northeast (p<0.0001) and highest in the Midwest (p<0.0001). There were differences in food sources of MUFA by age group. For children 0-5 years of age, major sources were whole milk, peanut butter, 2% milk, and French fries; for children 6-11, years of age, major sources were whole milk, peanut butter, French fries, and 2% milk; for children 12-19 years of age, French fries, salty snacks, whole milk, and meat pizza were the major sources and for adults, French fries, whole milk, potato chips, and ground beef were the most common sources of MUFA. Temporal trends and sociodemographic differences were observed in intakes and food sources of MUFA by U.S. children and adults. The implications of these changes and differences on biologic risk factors for specific chronic diseases warrant further investigation.

Technical Abstract: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may have a beneficial health effect. Twenty-four hour dietary intake data collected on 10-year-olds (n=1311) from 1978-1994 (Bogalusa Heart Study) and on children and adults (ages 0 to 30 years; CSFII 1994-96; n=7318) were examined for time, age, gender, ethnic, and geographic location differences in MUFA intake. Percent energy from MUFA decreased significantly (p<0.0001) from 1978 (14.1%) to 1994 (11.9%) with intake of oleic fatty acid decreasing (p<0.0001) from 33.9 g (1973) to 25.7 g (1994). In 1994-96, percent energy from MUFA was 13% for children and adults aged 12-30 years, with 5% from palmitoleic acid and 93% from oleic acid. Males and blacks had significantly (p<0.001) higher MUFA intake across all age groups than females and whites. Intakes of MUFA increased from 0-11 years to young adulthood (12-19 years) (p<0.0001), with no further increase at 20-30 years of age. Intakes of MUFA were lowest in the Northeast (p<0.0001) and highest in the Midwest (p<0.0001). There were differences in food sources of MUFA by age group. For children 0-5 years of age, major sources were whole milk, peanut butter, 2% milk, and French fries; for children 6-11, years of age, major sources were whole milk, peanut butter, French fries, and 2% milk; for children 12-19 years of age, French fries, salty snacks, whole milk, and meat pizza were the major sources and for adults, French fries, whole milk, potato chips, and ground beef were the most common sources of MUFA. Temporal trends and sociodemographic differences were observed in intakes and food sources of MUFA by U.S. children and adults. The implications of these changes and differences on biologic risk factors for specific chronic diseases warrant further investigation.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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