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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Sorption and Desorption of Phosphorus and Nitrogen by Crop Residue

Authors
item Cermak, Justin
item Gilley, John
item Eghball, Bahman
item Wienhold, Brian

Submitted to: Transactions of the ASAE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2003
Publication Date: February 1, 2004
Citation: Cermak, J.D., Gilley, J.E., Eghball, B., Wienhold, B.J. 2004. Sorption and desorption of phosphorus and nitrogen by crop residue. Transactions of the ASAE 47:113-118.

Interpretive Summary: Manure is applied to cropland areas containing varying amounts and types of residue materials. Information concerning the ability of crop residue materials to sorb or besorb nutrients transported in runoff from land application areas is limited. A laboratory study was conducted to measure sorption and desorption of nutrients by corn, soybean, and winter wheat residues. Experimental variables included type of residue material, nutrient constituent, nutrient concentration and contact time. Corn and soybean residue were found to desorb PO4-P with the rate of desorption unaffected by initial PO4-P solution concentration. As contact time increased, the rate at which corn and soybean residue desorbed PO4-P also became greater. Wheat residue was found to sorb PO4-P with the rate of sorption increasing with contact time. Corn residue desorbed NO3-N, with both solution concentration and contact time significantly affecting the rate of desorption. Crop residue materials may significantly impact runoff water quality and therefore should be included as an influencing factor in water quality studies.

Technical Abstract: Information concerning the ability of crop residue materials to sorb or desorb nutrients contained in runoff is limited. This laboratory study was conducted to measure sorption and desorption of inorganic nutrients by corn (Zea Mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pastiche) residues. Experimental variables included type of residue materials, nutrient constituents, nutrient concentrations and contact times. Corn and soybean residue were found to desorb PO4-P with the rate of desorption (µg nutrient per g residue) unaffected by initial PO4-P solution concentration. As contact time increased from 25 to 86400 sec, corn and soybean residue desorbed PO4-P at rates ranging from 15 to 527 µg g-1 and 23 to 256 µg g-1, respectively. Wheat residue was found to sorb PO4-P at rates varying from 35 to 92 µg g-1 as contact time increased from 250 to 86400 sec. Nitrate-N was desorbed by corn residue, with both solution concentration and contact time significantly affecting the rate of desorption. As contact time increased from 25 to 86400 sec, corn residue desorbed NO3-N at rates ranging from 7 to 55 µg g-1. For contact times varying from 25 to 2500 sec, wheat residue was able to sorb an average of 35 µg g-1 of NH4-N. Equations for predicting sorption or desorption of nutrients by the crop residue materials as a function of contact time are presented. Crop residue affects runoff water quality and should be included as an influencing factor in water quality studies.

Last Modified: 12/17/2014
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