Submitted to: Southern Nursery Association Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 14, 2002
Publication Date: February 10, 2003
Citation: Klein, M.G., Oliver, J.B., Moyseenko, J.J., Reding, M.E. 2003. Insecticidal Dips and other Strategies for Elimination of Japanese Beetle Larvae from Balled and Burlapped Nursery Stock. Southern Nursery Association Proceedings.47:176-179. Interpretive Summary: The Japanese Beetle is a serious pest of horticulture crops throughout the eastern United States, and an important quarantine concern for nurserymen shipping stock to areas of the country where it still may become established. Shipments of nursery stock are regulated by teh U.S. Domestic Japanese Harmonization Plan coordinated by the Natinal Plant Board. We found that the concentration of Dursban, the current chemical available for dipping balled and burlapped (B&B) nursery stock, could be 16 times lower and still eleminate Japanese Beetle larvae. In addition, six other chemicals (Dylox 80 T&O, Flagship 25WG, MACH2 Liquid Turf, Marathon 60WP, Sevin SL, and Talstar Lawn & Tree F) eliminated beetle larvae from dipping B&B plants. However, surface application of these chemicals did not eliminate larvae. The information obtained here will give scientists, the nursery industry, and regulatory officials new tools for the suppression and eradicaiton of Japanese Beetle populations. This will result in improved methods and lower costs for shipping nursery stock to uninfested areas of the U.S. and Internationally.
Technical Abstract: The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) was first found in the U.S. around 1916, has expanded its range to the Mississippi River and beyond, and continues to be a pest of nursery, agricultural, and turf products. The annual cost of controlling larval and adult Japanese beetle control has been estimated at > $460 million. In addition to direct costs, the beetle heavily impacts nursery trade through quarantines. The immature stages of the beetle can easily be transported with soil-bearing nursery stock. At the present time, movement of field nursery stock requires compliance with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan administrated by the National Plant Board. All nursery stock shipped from states determined to be infested to non-infested states must meet required regulatory treatments. Dipping is the only treatment that can be done in the fall immediately prior to shipment of nursery stock. The objectives of this research were to find efficacious alternative products for Japanese beetle control, and to find products with efficacy near the time of nursery stock shipping. Japanese beetle grubs were completely eliminated by the high broadcast rates of Flagship and Marathon and by two rates of MACH2 in one test, but not the other. Japanese beetle grubs were completely eliminated by dipping B&B stock in seven different chemicals, but not by entomopathogenic nematodes. The lowest effective chlorpyrifos dip rate (15 g ai/100 L) is 16 times lower than the rate currently recommended (240 g ai/100 L) by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan.