Submitted to: Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Animal Manures, Biosolids and Other Similar By-Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 27, 2002
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Information is presented in this paper on parasites found in municipal wastewater effluents, biosolids, or animal wastes and considered to be a concern to public health. For each parasite a detailed description is presented. Topics include summary of the parasite's life history as related to transmission, its pathogenic effects on humans or livestock, the physical nature of the resustant stage, what is known about potential risk, prevalence, geographic distribution in the US, potential for transmission through biosolids, effects of biosolid processing, methods of detection, and what do we need to know about this organism. This information will be used by USEPA to develop strategies for protection of surface water.
This in-depth review of parasites found in municipal wastewater effluents, biosolids, or animal wastes and considered to be a concern to public health includes the protozoa Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, Microsporidia, Balantidium, Giardia, and Entamoeba as well as the helminths Trichuris, Ascaris, and Taenia. Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Toxoplasma are similar relative to the effects of disinfection while they probaby settle out of water at different rates. Microsporidia are an unknown commodity in that they have been studied bery little with respect to wastewater treatment. Balantidium, Giardia, and Entamoeba are likely to persist in effluents but are likely subject to rapid destruction in biosolids. The helminths are probably similar in settling and resistance to destruction and disinfection.