|Thippareddi, H - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY|
|Phebus, R - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY|
|Marsden, J. - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY|
|Kastner, C. - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 12, 2002
Publication Date: May 7, 2003
Citation: Thippareddi, H., Juneja, V.K., Phebus, R.K., Marsden, J.L., Kastner, C.L. 2003. Control of clostridium perfringens germination and outgrowth by buffered sodium citrate during chilling of roast beef and injected pork. Journal of Food Protection. 60:376-381. Interpretive Summary: One of the most common types of food poisoning in the United States is caused by the bacterium, Clostridium perfringens. Illnesses have been traditionally associated with inadequate cooling practices in retail food service operations. Thus, there was a need to determine the cooling time and temperature for cooked meat products to remain pathogen-free and provide vital data for performing risk assessment on cooked meat. We determined that cooling times for roast beef or injected pork products after heat processing can be extended to 21 h by incorporation of the antimicrobial ingredients, buffered sodium citrate and buffered sodium citrate supplemented with sodium diacetate, at more than or equal to 1.0% in the formulation to reduce the potential risk of C. perfringens germination and outgrowth. These findings will be of immediate use to retail food service operations and regulatory agencies to ensure the safety of cooked foods.
Technical Abstract: Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens germination and outgrowth by buffered sodium citrate and buffered sodium citrate supplemented with sodium diacetate was evaluated during abusive chilling of roast beef and injected pork. Beef top rounds and pork loins were injected with a brine containing NaCl (7.1%), potato starch (4.17%) and potassium tetra pyrophosphate (1.67%) at 12% pump to yield final concentrations of 0.85, 0.25 and 0.20%, respectively in the products. The products were ground, mixed with either Ional (TM)(buffered sodium citrate) or Ional Plus (TM)(buffered sodium citrate pre-mixed with sodium diacetate) at 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% for each antimicrobial, along with a control. Each of the products were mixed with a three-strain C. perfringens spore cocktail to obtain final spore concentrations of ca. 2.5 log10 spores/g. Chilling of roast beef from 54.4 to 7.2C resulted in 1.51 and 5.27 log10 CFU/g increases in C. perfringens populations when 18 and 21 h exponential chill rates were used, respectively. Chilling injected pork following similar chill rates resulted in 3.70 and 4.41 log10 CFU/g increases in C. perfringens populations. Incorporation of Ional (TM) into the roast beef formulation resulted in reductions (0.98, 1.87, 2.47 log10 CFU/g with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% Ional, respectively) in C. perfringens populations during 18 h of chilling, while more than or equal to 1.0% of Ional Plus (TM)was required to achieve similar reductions (0.91 and 2.07 log10 CFU/g with 1.0 and 2.0% Ional Plus, respectively). Ional (TM) or Ional Plus (TM) at more than or equal to 1.0% concentration was required to reduce C. perfringens populations in roast beef or injected pork chilled from 54.4 to 7.2C in 21 h. Cooling times for roast beef or injected pork products after heat processing can be extended to 21 h by incorporation of the antimicrobial ingredients, Ional (TM) or Ional Plus (TM), at more than or equal to 1.0% in the formulation to reduce the potential risk of C. perfringens germination and outgrowth.