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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Trans Acid Reduction in Shortening Oils and Products

Authors
item List, Gary
item Steidley, Kevin

Submitted to: American Bakers Association Agricultural Research Service Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 17, 2002
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: The composition, physical properties and trans acid content of commercial shortenings are reported. Included are data for all purpose baking, frying, cake/icing, pastry and pie products. The manufacturing and processing of shortening basestocks are reviewed, along with methods used to formulate various types of baking shortenings. The margarine/spread industry has made concentrated efforts to reduce trans acids in products. Tools to accomplish this include: (1) switching from a multiple basestock system, i.e. use of 2 or more hydrogenated components to a single hydrogenated basestock, which allows formulation of a wide variety of products with reduced trans levels. (2) Interesterification. (3) Incorporation of tropical oils. A fourth alternative includes use of structurally modified oils with increased saturated acid content. The shortening industry has made progress in introducing low trans products formulated from interesterified basestocks. Interesterification technologies available to processors are reviewed. Several studies have indicated that low/no trans shortenings perform as well as traditional products in a variety of baking applications and these studies will be reviewed. Another approach to reducing trans acid levels involves pressure controlled hydrogenation at higher than normal pressures and the use of binary gas mixtures, i.e. CO2 and H2. These studies will be reviewed.

Last Modified: 11/27/2014
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