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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Acaricides for Control of the African Tortoise Tick (Amblyomma Marmoreum) on Leopard Tortoises (Geochelone Pardalis)

Authors
item Burridge, Michael - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item Burridge, Michael - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item Peter, Trevor - UF/USAID/SADC
item Peter, Trevor - UF/USAID/SADC
item Allan, Sandra
item Allan, Sandra
item Mahan, Suman - UF/USAID/SADC
item Mahan, Suman - UF/USAID/SADC

Submitted to: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2002
Publication Date: February 15, 2002
Citation: BURRIDGE, M.J., PETER, T.F., ALLAN, S.A., MAHAN, S.M. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ACARICIDES FOR CONTROL OF THE AFRICAN TORTOISE TICK (AMBLYOMMA MARMOREUM) ON LEOPARD TORTOISES (GEOCHELONE PARDALIS). JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE. 2002. v.33. p.52-57.

Interpretive Summary: Exotic ticks have been repeatedly reported from tortoises and other reptiles imported into the United States. One of the most commonly reported tick species is the African tortoise tick from Africa and most commonly associated with a number of species of tortoises. Because this tick species is able to transmit heartwater, a fatal disease of cattle and goats, there is concern about the introduction of potentially infected ticks into the United States. Unfortunately there is little information about the safety and effectiveness of pesticides for control of ticks on reptiles. In this study nine pesticides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin and pyrethrins) were studied for their efficacy in killing the African tortoise tick. The most effective compounds for killing ticks were chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane and permthrin with cyfluthrin and permethrin being the safest compounds for use on leopard tortoises. This study was conducted in part by Sandra Allan, currently a USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Florida employee.

Technical Abstract: Nine acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin and pyrethrins) were studied for the efficacy in killing the African tortoise tick (Amblyomma marmoreum). Only four of the acaricides (chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane and permethrin) produced 100% mortality within 24 hours of application and only two (cyfluthrin and permethrin) continued to cause 100 percent mortality when diluted to as low as 1: 10,000. Five of the acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin and permethrin) were studied for toxicity to leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis), the most common host of A. marmoreum. The results indicated that cyfluthrin and permethrin, which were the two most effective acaricides for control of A. marmoreum, were also the safest acaricides for use on leopard tortoises.

Submitted to: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2002
Publication Date: February 15, 2002
Citation: BURRIDGE, M.J., PETER, T.F., ALLAN, S.A., MAHAN, S.M. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ACARICIDES FOR CONTROL OF THE AFRICAN TORTOISE TICK (AMBLYOMMA MARMOREUM) ON LEOPARD TORTOISES (GEOCHELONE PARDALIS). JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE. 2002. v.33. p.52-57.

Interpretive Summary: Exotic ticks have been repeatedly reported from tortoises and other reptiles imported into the United States. One of the most commonly reported tick species is the African tortoise tick from Africa and most commonly associated with a number of species of tortoises. Because this tick species is able to transmit heartwater, a fatal disease of cattle and goats, there is concern about the introduction of potentially infected ticks into the United States. Unfortunately there is little information about the safety and effectiveness of pesticides for control of ticks on reptiles. In this study nine pesticides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin and pyrethrins) were studied for their efficacy in killing the African tortoise tick. The most effective compounds for killing ticks were chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane and permthrin with cyfluthrin and permethrin being the safest compounds for use on leopard tortoises. This study was conducted in part by Sandra Allan, currently a USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Florida employee.

Technical Abstract: Nine acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin and pyrethrins) were studied for the efficacy in killing the African tortoise tick (Amblyomma marmoreum). Only four of the acaricides (chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane and permethrin) produced 100% mortality within 24 hours of application and only two (cyfluthrin and permethrin) continued to cause 100 percent mortality when diluted to as low as 1: 10,000. Five of the acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin and permethrin) were studied for toxicity to leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis), the most common host of A. marmoreum. The results indicated that cyfluthrin and permethrin, which were the two most effective acaricides for control of A. marmoreum, were also the safest acaricides for use on leopard tortoises.

Last Modified: 7/30/2014
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