|Trucksess, Mary - US FDA, WASHINGTON, DC|
|Dombrink Kurtzman, Mary Ann|
|Tournas, Valerie - US FDA, WASHINGTON, DC|
|White, Kevin - US FDA, WASHINGTON, DC|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Additives & Contaminants
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 15, 2002
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The study was undertaken to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of the mycotoxins, aflatoxins and fumonisins, in Incaparina. Incaparina, a mixture of corn and cottonseed flour, was introduced by the Institute Nutrition of Central America and Panama, INCAP, and has been an established commercial product in Guatemala since 1961. A total of eight samples were collected and examined for aflatoxins, fumonisins and fungal contamination. All samples contained aflatoxins and fumonisins. Aspergillus flavus was the main fungus in U. S. samples. Aflatoxin B1 was detected well in excess of 20 ng/g, the FDA regulatory level for aflatoxin, in all of the U. S. samples. Appropriate regulatory action was recommended for the import of Incaparina.
Technical Abstract: The occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in Incaparina was investigated. Incaparina is a mixture of corn and cottonseed flour with added vitamins, minerals, and a preservative. It has been marketed as a high protein food supplement, particularly for children on protein deficient diets. According to estimates, 80 percent of Guatemalan children in their first year are given Incaparina to provide an adequate diet. The aflatoxin- and fumonisin- producing fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme Sheldon), respectively, are commonly found in corn and cottonseed. Because of this, it is possible that one or more of these toxins may be present in Incaparina. Eight samples of Incaparina manufactured in Guatemala were collected. Five were from three different geographical locations in the United States and three were from Guatemala. Seven were examined for fungal contamination, and analyzed for aflatoxins and fumonisins. A. flavus was the predominant fungus in all samples purchased from the U.S. and in one sample purchased from Guatemala. All samples contained aflatoxins, ranging from 3-214 ng/g and <2-32 ng/g for aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2, respectively; one sample contained aflatoxin G1 (7 ng/g). Total aflatoxins present ranged from 3-244 ng/g. All samples contained fumonisins, ranging from 0.2-1.7 ug/g, <0.1-0.6 ug/g, and <0.1-0.2 ug/g for fumonisins B1, fumonisin B2, and fumonisin B3, respectively. Total fumonisins present ranged from 0.2-2.2 ug/g. The identity of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed using both the chemical derivatization method and LC/MS analysis. Appropriate regulatory action was recommended for the import of Incaparina and has been in effect since December 22, 1998.