Submitted to: Office International Epizootics Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 2, 2001
Publication Date: N/A
Atrophic rhinitis of swine is characterized by nasal discharge, shortening or twisting of the snout, atrophy of the turbinate bones and reduced productivity. The severe, progressive form is caused by infection with toxigenic strains of Pasteurella multocida alone or in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infections with B. bronchiseptica alone can cause a mild to moderate form with nonprogressive turbinate bone atrophy. Environmental and management factors contribute to the severity and incidence of this disease. Diagnosis depends on clinical and post-mortem observations assisted by the recovery and characterization of P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica. These agents can be identified by traditional biochemical tests following isolation on selective media. Toxigenicity of P. multocida can be demonstrated by testing for cytotoxicity in cultured cells or by an ELISA available in some areas of the world. Recently developed assays based on the use of DNA probes or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide sensitive and specific detection for those laboratories with the capability to perform them. Several vaccines are available commercially that contain bacterins of B. bronchiseptica and a mixture of toxigenic and/or nontoxigenic strains of P. multocida, or a toxoid derived from P. multocida or from a recombinant Escherichia coli.