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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Screening Poisonous Plant Toxins for Cytotoxicity Using Bovine Embryos produced by in Vitro Fertilization Techniques

Authors
item PANTER, KIP
item James, Lynn
item Wang, - UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY
item GARDNER, DALE
item Gaffield Jr, William
item Molyneux, Russell
item STEGELMEIER, BRYAN
item Bunch, - UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2003
Publication Date: November 1, 2003
Citation: Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wang, .S., Gardner, D.R., Gaffield Jr, W.P., Molyneux, R.J., Stegelmeier, B.L., Bunch, .T. 2004. Screening poisonous plant toxins for cytotoxicity using bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization techniques. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.

Interpretive Summary: Six plant toxins with know or suspected reproductive toxicological effects in livestock were screened for cytotoxicity using in vitro bovine embryo production techniques. Swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid toxin from locoweed; isocupressic acid, a labdane resin acid and an abortifacient from ponderosa pine needles, and three natural steroidal alkaloids from the teratogenic plant Veratrum californicum, were introduced into culture medi during oocyte maturation and during embryo growth and development. Swainsonine and isocupressic acid had no adverse effects on oocyte maturation or embryo growth and development while one of the three steroidal alkaloids (cyclopamine) inhibited cleavage rates and embryo growth and development of morula and blastocysts. Selected embryos from the swainsonine and isocupressic acid cultures were transferred to recipient heifers. Normal calves were born from the swainsonine cultured embryos while 2 of 5 calves resulting from isocupressic acid culture had severe cardiovascular anomalies. It is not understood at this time if the isocupressic acid was responsible for the cardiovascular anomalies and will require further study. Embryos cultured in the presence of the three steroidal alkaloids have not been transferred recipient heifers yet.

Technical Abstract: Six plant toxins with know or suspected reproductive toxicological effects in livestock were screened for cytotoxicity using in vitro bovine embryo production techniques. Swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid toxin from locoweed; isocupressic acid, a labdane resin acid and an abortifacient from ponderosa pine needles, and three natural steroidal alkaloids from the teratogenic plant Veratrum californicum, were introduced into culture medi during oocyte maturation and during embryo growth and development. Swainsonine and isocupressic acid had no adverse effects on oocyte maturation or embryo growth and development while one of the three steroidal alkaloids (cyclopamine) inhibited cleavage rates and embryo growth and development of morula and blastocysts. Selected embryos from the swainsonine and isocupressic acid cultures were transferred to recipient heifers. Normal calves were born from the swainsonine cultured embryos while 2 of 5 calves resulting from isocupressic acid culture had severe cardiovascular anomalies. It is not understood at this time if the isocupressic acid was responsible for the cardiovascular anomalies and will require further study. Embryos cultured in the presence of the three steroidal alkaloids have not been transferred recipient heifers yet.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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