Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 25, 2002
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Brachyspira species have been isolated from animal or human intestinal contents, fecal contaminated habitats (e.g., duck ponds), and human blood. They are anaerobic bacteria but are aerotolerant due, at least in part, to high NADH oxidase activity. They use soluble sugars as carbon and energy sources. Growing cells of Brachyspira species (B. aalborgi has not been investigated) consume low concentrations of oxygen via NADH oxidase and produce acetate, butyrate, H2, and CO2 from glucose. Some species also produce ethanol. Brachyspira DNA's have a low moles % G+C content (24.5- 26.7%; undetermined for B. aalborgi). Brachyspira species have high 16S rDNA sequence similarities with each other. Brachyspira strains have been assigned to eight ET (electrophoretic type) groups based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis. The MEE groups correspond to seven species as defined from DNA homology studies and one currently provisional species ('B. canis'). There are seven recognized species and one provisional species ('B. canis') of the genus Brachyspira (Table 1). The species B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, and B. alvinipulli are associated with diseases of agriculturally important animals and have been shown to cause disease when inoculated as pure cultures into their healthy, natural hosts. B. intermedia may be a chicken pathogen.