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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Toxicity to Growing Barrows of Fumonisin from Fusarium Moniliforme Culture Material and Moniliformin from Fusarium Fujikuroi Culture Material When Fedsingly and in Combination

item Harvey, Roger
item Edrington, Thomas
item Kubena, Leon
item Rottinghaus, George - UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI
item Genovese, Kenneth
item Ziprin, Richard
item Nisbet, David

Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 2, 2001
Publication Date: February 1, 2002

Interpretive Summary: Mycotoxins are poisons produced by fungi. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and moniliformin (M) are mycotoxins that are toxic to swine. Because these toxins can be produced on corn growing in the United States, swine could be exposed to them. The purpose of the present study was to determine the combined toxicity of FB1 and M to growing pigs. Liver, lung, and heart disease and acute death were produced in pigs at dosages similar to those that produce toxicity in poultry. This is important because the swine industry could experience economic losses if swine were exposed to FB1 and M contaminated feeds.

Technical Abstract: The effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) from Fusarium moniliforme culture material and moniliformin (M) from F. fujikuroi culture material on growing barrows were evaluated. Six barrows (3 replicates of 2 each, mean body weight, 11.1 kg) per group (4 groups, 24 barrows total) were fed diets calculated to contain: 0 mg FB1 and 0 mg M/kg feed (control); 100 mg FB1/kg feed; 100 mg M/kg feed; or 100 mg FB1 plus 100 mg M/kg feed. Body weight gain, feed efficiency, serum biochemical analytes, and hematological values were adversely affected by the FB1 and the FB1 plus M diets. The M diet decreased body weight gain. Two barrows died in the M diet group and 2 died in the FB1 plus M diet group. All deaths occurred during the first 6 days of the study. Microscopically, mild to moderate lesions were observed in heart and lung tissues of the M- and FB1 plus M- treated groups and in liver tissues of the FB1- and FB1 plus M-treated groups. Except for acute mortality associated with the two diets containing M, clinical disease induced by the combined feeding of these two mycotoxins appears additive or less-than-additive and due primarily to the toxic expression of FB1.

Last Modified: 4/17/2015