Submitted to: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 25, 2001
Publication Date: April 1, 2002
Citation: OLNESS, A.E., ARCHER, D.W., GESCH, R.W., RINKE, J.L. RESIN-EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS, VANADIUM, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM AS FACTORS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) YIELD. JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE. 2002. V. 188. P. 94-101. Interpretive Summary: Most chemical analyses of soils omit several important elements. Because of this fact, many chemical factors that affect corn grain yield are never observed. Resin-extraction of surface soils (extraction with ion exchange resins) showed that two chemical ratios had an effect on corn grain yield. The V:(V+P) seems to generally affect all crop yields. A loss of yield potential of about 20% is obtained when the resin-extracted ratio reaches about 0.2. One hybrid, #22, had a consistent gain in yield as the Mg:(Mg+Ca) ratio increased from about 0.2 to 0.8. These observations were made on soils rich in Mg, Ca, and P. The results lead to the conclusion that both management and genotype selection are important in getting the best crop yield. The results will aid crop breeders in developing hybrids that are better adapted to soils. It will also aid soil fertility management specialists in designing better recommendations for specific soils and hybrids.
Technical Abstract: Resin extraction of soil permits evaluation of ratios of readily extracted elements and correlation of concentrations obtained with crop yield. This information provides guidance on potential genotype selection and fertility management. Two hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.) designated as 22 and 38, were grown annually in rotational succession on a 3.2 ha site with soybean (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were extracted with ion-exchange resins and extracts were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma. Data were regressed against crop yield using stepwise multiple correlation methods. Each hybrid was sensitive to unique combinations of extracted chemistries. Both hybrids of maize were sensitive to the resin extractable V:(V+P) molar ratio and potential losses of greater than or equal to 20% were indicated as the ratio approached 0.2. A positive response to the Mg:(Mg+Ca) resin-extractable ratio was noted for maize hybrid 22 in each of three successive years. Changes of yield potentials associated with the Mg:(Mg+Ca) ratio for hybrid 22 ranged from none to greater than or equal to 20% as the ratio ranged from 0.2 to about 0.8. The results indicate, that in the presence of large extractable concentrations of competing or inhibitory ions, different approaches to nutrient management in the form of fertilizer nutrient analysis, application, and genotype selection are needed to overcome effects of competing ions.