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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Cottonseed with a High (+) to (-) Gossypol Enantiomer Ratio Favorable to Broiler Production

Authors
item Bailey, Christopher - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Stipanovic, Robert
item Ziehr, Michael - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Haq, Akram - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Sattar, Minawar - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Kubena, Leon
item Kim, Hyeong - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Vieira, Robeson - EMBRAPA-ALGODAO - BRAZIL

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 18, 2000
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Cottonseed is not used as a feed for broiler chickens because it contains a poisonous compound called gossypol. Others have shown that gossypol exists as two closely related types, known as the (+) and (-) isomers. The (-) isomer is normally the more toxic of the two. We have now shown that cottonseed with high levels of the (+) isomer can be fed at levels greater than 5% to broiler chickens with no loss in weight as compared to a control diet containing no cottonseed. These findings are important because they show that it may be possible to develop processes for growing certain types of cotton that will produce seed that is safe to feed to poultry.

Technical Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the relative toxicity of (+)- and (-)- gossypol isomers in broilers. A total of 250 day-old male broiler chicks were obtained from a local hatcher. These chicks were randomly placed into 48 Petersime brooder pens with five birds per pen. Treatments consisted of broiler starter diets formulated with either a glandless, a commercial glanded (62.2%(+)- gossypol), or a glanded moco (83.2%(+) gossypol crushed cottonseed (CCS) six replicates/treatment) plus a soybean meal negative control. Glandless cottonseed was mixed with the moco cottonseed (2.38% free gossypol) so that both the commercial glanded and moco glanded cottonseeds contained equivalent concentrations of free gossypol (1.99%). The cottonseed treatments were added at 5 and 10% of the diet. Body weights and feed conversions were determined weekly. After 3 weeks, the study was terminated and two birds per pen were randomly selected and blood serum and liver samples collected for analysis. Body weights and feed to grain ratios of broilers fed 5 and 10% glandless CCS and 5% moco CCS were not significantly different. Broilers receiving 10% commercial glanded CCS weighed significantly less than all other treatments. Feed to grain ratios were significantly higher for broilers receiving 10% commercial glanded and 10% moco CCS as compared to 5% moco and glandless CSS, 10% glandless CCS and control. The data clearly showed that broilers fed CCS containing a relatively high (+)- to (-)- gossypol isomer ration performed better than broilers receiving CCS with a lower (+) to (-) gossypol isomer ratio.

Last Modified: 11/25/2014
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