Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Weeds, Seeds, and Buds - Opportunities and Systems for Dormancy Investigations

Author
item Foley, Michael

Submitted to: Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 10, 2000
Publication Date: February 7, 2001
Citation: Foley, M.E. 2001. Weeds, seeds, and buds - opportunities and systems for dormancy investigations. [Abstract]. Weed Science Society of America Meeting. 41:103.

Interpretive Summary: Dormancy is the term use to describe seeds and buds that fail to grow when environmental conditions are favorable for growth. While almost all weeds display some type of dormancy, certain species are better suited for initial investigations to determine mechanisms that regulate seed and bud growth and development. Model systems such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice or red rice (Oryza sativa) are well suited for molecular genetic investigations, including cloning genes that regulate seed germinability. In terms of vegetative propagules, johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) has been used in a molecular analysis of rhizomatous growth, potato (Solanum tuberosum) for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of tuber dormancy, and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) for molecular investigations of root bud dormancy. Investigation of dormancy in serious weeds like wild oat (Avena fatua), foxtails (Setaria spp.), and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) benefit from genomic research on rice and other cereal crop species because of grass genome colinearity. It is not clear yet if there is a high level of genome colinearity between Arabidopsis and other dicots. Genome projects on crops like wheat, cotton, sorghum, etc., along with expression analysis (knock out mutations, microarray databases) can provide the techniques and tools to examine genome-scale gene expression as it relates to dormancy in related weedy species; for example, velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), Sida spp., leafy spurge, jointed goatgrass, common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), etc. As technologies progress we should be able to answer question like: why is there differences in germinability between dimorphic common cocklebur seeds, or what controls bud development in quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) rhizomes? Ultimately, we need to answer such questions about dormancy to improve existing and discover new weed management strategies.

Technical Abstract: Dormancy is the term use to describe seeds and buds that fail to grow when environmental conditions are favorable for growth. While almost all weeds display some type of dormancy, certain species are better suited for initial investigations to determine mechanisms that regulate seed and bud growth and development. Model systems such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice or red rice (Oryza sativa) are well suited for molecular genetic investigations, including cloning genes that regulate seed germinability. In terms of vegetative propagules, johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) has been used in a molecular analysis of rhizomatous growth, potato (Solanum tuberosum) for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of tuber dormancy, and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) for molecular investigations of root bud dormancy. Investigation of dormancy in serious weeds like wild oat (Avena fatua), foxtails (Setaria spp.), and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) benefit from genomic research on rice and other cereal crop species because of grass genome colinearity. It is not clear yet if there is a high level of genome colinearity between Arabidopsis and other dicots. Genome projects on crops like wheat, cotton, sorghum, etc., along with expression analysis (knock out mutations, microarray databases) can provide the techniques and tools to examine genome-scale gene expression as it relates to dormancy in related weedy species; for example, velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), Sida spp., leafy spurge, jointed goatgrass, common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), etc. As technologies progress we should be able to answer question like: why is there differences in germinability between dimorphic common cocklebur seeds, or what controls bud development in quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) rhizomes? Ultimately, we need to answer such questions about dormancy to improve existing and discover new weed management strategies.

Last Modified: 12/20/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page