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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Estimation of Soil Compaction from Animal Effluent Compost Injection

Authors
item Kishimoto, Tadashi - OBIHIRO UNIVERSITY-JAPAN
item Takahashi, Junichi - OVIHIRO UNIVERSITY-JAPAN
item Jun, Hyung-Gyu - OBIHIRO UNIVERSITY-JAPAN
item Way, Thomas

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 25, 2001
Publication Date: February 15, 2001
Citation: Kishimoto, T., Takahashi, J., Jun, H., Way, T.R. 2001. Estimation of soil compaction from animal effluent compost injection. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Greenhouse Gases from Animal Husbandry, June 26-30, 2000, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia. p. 60-64.

Interpretive Summary: Application of liquid manure to soil using methods that minimize odors is becoming increasingly important. Injection of manure into soil using knifelike injectors on an implement pulled by a tractor is an application method that reduces odors relative to surface application, but soil may be compacted severely by the tires of heavy liquid manure spreaders which are towed behind tractors. Soil compaction has been shown to increase as mechanical stresses in soil increase. Stresses in soil beneath a small tractor drive tire were measured in a sandy clay loam soil. The stresses were least when a relatively low amount of weight was supported by the tire while the tire air pressure was the amount recommended by the tire manufacturer to match the weight. Stresses were greatest when a low weight and high air pressure were used. Stresses in soil beneath a liquid manure spreader were estimated to be twice or greater than those of the tractor tire. Soil compaction from tires of liquid manure spreaders was estimated to be greater than that caused by a tractor tire when the tires are operated on upland fields. On grasslands, high soil stresses by liquid manure spreaders and other implements cause soil compaction and surface damage. Central tire inflation systems allow tire air pressures to be adjusted by the vehicle operator and are expected to be useful in avoiding excessive soil compaction from liquid manure spreaders.

Technical Abstract: Application of liquid manure to soil using methods that minimize odors is becoming increasingly important. Injection of manure into soil is an application method that reduces odors relative to surface application, but soil may be compacted severely by the tires of heavy liquid manure spreaders. Mechanical stresses in soil beneath a free-rolling 12.4-24 bias-ply tractor drive tire were measured in a sandy clay loam in a soil bin at three combinations of tire vertical load and inflation pressure. Stresses in soil beneath the centerline of the tire were least when a recommended combination of load (11.8 kN) and inflation pressure (108 kPa) were used, intermediate when an underinflated combination of 59 kPa and 14.2 kN were used, and greatest when the tire was overinflated with an inflation pressure of 157 kPa for a 9.3 kN load. Tires of a typical liquid manure spreader have nearly the same width as this tractor tire but have smaller diameters, so liquid manure spreader tires have smaller contact areas and greater contact pressures. Stresses in soil beneath a liquid manure spreader were estimated to be twice or greater than those of the tractor tire. Soil compaction from tires of liquid manure spreaders was estimated to be greater than that caused by a tractor tire when the tires are operated on upland fields. On grasslands, high soil stresses by liquid manure spreaders and other implements cause soil compaction and surface damage. Central tire inflation systems allow tire inflation pressures to be adjusted by the vehicle operator and are expected to be useful in avoiding excessive soil compaction from liquid manure spreaders.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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