Submitted to: Crop Science Society Of America
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2001
Publication Date: July 1, 2004
Citation: Delwiche, S.R. 2004. Applications in analysis of small grain crops: wheat, barley, and rice. Chapter 11. p. 269-320. In: Roberts, C.A., Workman Jr., J., and Reeves III, J.B., editors. Near-infrared spectroscopy in agriculture. Agron. Monogr. 44. ASA. CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. 822 p.
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for analysis of the major (moisture, protein, starch, and oil) and some minor constituents in food and feed has been commercially available for approximately 30 years. Many of the initial successes of this methodology were developed using the small cereal grains such as wheat, barley, and rice. Starting with the 1950's need to rapidly measure moisture content in wheat flour to today's desire for measuring the functional performance of cereal grain products, NIR is arguably considered to be the best approach because of its speed, accuracy, ease of use, and lack of chemical waste. This treatise on NIR of cereals concentrates on the important studies on wheat over the past 10 years and on barley and rice over the past 25 years. It is divided into five sections. First, some of the primary applications to intact and ground wheat, as developed by USDA Beltsville scientists and collaborators beginning in the 1950's, are presented. Next, methods of sample presentation are examined. The third section deals with networking, standardization, and official analyses. The fourth, and largest, section collects the explosion of special applications developed since 1980, with special emphasis on the past 10 years. A final section provides some general caveats and conclusions. Much of what is presented is done in light of the expected increase in international trade, whereby added emphasis will be placed on the nutritional and functional aspects and sanitation of the traded grain. NIR will most likely be the technology that is used in many of these tests.