|Abbott Dr, Thomas|
|Flo, Gerda - KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT|
|Frank, Lothar - LARK ENTERPRISES INC|
|Kolodziejczyk, Paul - POS PILOT PLANT CORP|
|York, David - PENNINGTON BIOMEDICAL RES|
Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 12, 2000
Publication Date: September 18, 2000
Citation: ABBOTT DR, T.P., FLO, G., FRANK, L., HOLSER, R.A., KOLODZIEJCZYK, P., YORK, D., NELSEN, T.C. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF SIMMONDSIN ANALYSIS. INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS. 2000. Interpretive Summary: Jojoba is a new crop in the United States, and 2-3 million pounds of seed is produced each year. The oil, about 50% of the seed, is in many commercial products. The remainder of the seed is thrown away or buried. Now there is potential for the rest of the seed to be used in weight reduction for overweight animals because there is a natural hunger-fighting agent in the seed. This research compared different laboratory methods for measuring how much hunger-fighting ingredient is in the seed, pet food pellets and extracts of the seed. The different laboratories can now improve their methods so an accurate measure of the natural hunger-fighting ingredient can be made, improving product quality and turning and agricultural waste into a useful product.
Technical Abstract: Eleven samples containing various amounts of simmondsin (S), simmondsin ferulate (SF), demethyl simmondsins (DMS) and didemethyl simmondsins (DDMS) were analyzed by five different laboratories. The samples were made from chromatographically pure simmondsin, animal feed formulations containing jojoba meal, defatted jojoba meal, water extracts of jojoba meal and combinations of these ingredients. All materials of mixes were ground together in a coffee mill and sieved. Four labs analyzed for simmondsin and two other related components and one lab analyzed for only S. The means of the S, SF, DMS and DDMS percentages in the samples were determined to be: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) purified simmondsin, 94.1% S, 0 SF, 6.30% DMS, 0.52% DDMS; recrystallized simmondsin, 99.6 % S, 0 SF, 1.01% DMS, 0 DDMS; water extract of jojoba meal 1, 29.2% S, 2.62% SF, 3.45% DMS, 9.47% DDMS; water extract of jojoba meal 2, 20.6% S, 2.00% SF, 2.81% DMS, 8.66% DDMS; formulated pet food with simmondsin, 0.59% S, 0 SF, 0 DMS, 0.01% DDMS; defatted jojoba presscake 7.05% S, 1.55% SF, 1.34% DMS, 3.48% DDMS. Using a Rank-Sum test, no laboratory demonstrated a consistently higher or lower bias compared to other laboratories for simmondsin analysis. Simmondsin analysis had less variability (C.V.=44) than other component analyses. Reproducibility for a blind duplicate sample of defatted jojoba presscake demonstrated that four of the five laboratories were consistent in simmondsin analysis. Water extracts of jojoba meal were shown to be highly variable in simmondsin content.