|Northcutt, J. - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA|
|Smith, D. - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA|
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 22, 1999
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: During production and processing, broiler breast muscle may be bruised, resulting in discolored fillets that are usually downgraded. Depending upon the bruise severity and surface area, the company may choose to further process the fillets rather than accept loss as a raw retail product. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of breast bruising on marinade pick-up and retention, as well as to investigate the possibility that marination might improve bruised fillet appearance. To accomplish these objectives, broilers were anesthetized to block perception of pain, bruised on one side of the breast with a contusion apparatus developed by Hamdy (1961) to produce a bruise using minimal force. Broilers were processed within 1 hour or 12 hours after receiving the injury. Marination pick-up ranged from approximately 7.5 to 9.74 percent, with wide variation among fillets and no defined pattern relative to bruising. For a 1 hour bruise age (representing broiler unloading or placement onto the shackle line prior to immobilization by stunning) marination increased redness of the raw fillet, but decreased redness in the cooked fillet when compared to the non-marinated bruised fillets. Based on these results, it seems that marination may be used to improve bruised fillet appearance when the fillets originate from broilers injured within 1 hour of processing and are designated for cooked products.
Technical Abstract: Broiler muscle may be bruised during production, or during catching, loading and unloading prior to processing. Breast bruises result in discolored fillets that are downgraded. Three trials were conducted to investigate the effects of breast bruising on marinade pick-up and retention, as well as the possibility that marination might improve bruised fillet appearance. Market-aged broilers were anesthetized, bruised on one side of the breast and processed within 1 hour or 12 hours after receiving the injury. Bruising, regardless of age, resulted in raw and cooked fillets that were darker (lower L) and redder (higher a) than non-bruised fillets. Bruising had no effect on marination pick- up or retention, with all fillets having approximately 7.5 to 9.75 percent marinade pick-up and 81 to 88 percent cook yield. Marination had no effect on lightness (L) of control or bruised raw or cooked fillets. Marination decreased yellowness (lower b) of cooked bruised fillets when compared to non-marinated bruised fillets; however, no difference in yellowness was found due to bruise age. Marination of fillets from broilers bruised within 1 hour of processing resulted in increased raw fillet redness(higher a), but decreased cooked fillet redness when compared to non-marinated fillets. Based on this study, marination followed by cooking may be used to improve appearance of fillets from broilers bruised within 1 hour of processing.