Submitted to: Transactions of the ASAE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 12, 1999
Publication Date: November 15, 1999
Citation: HOLT, G.A., BAKER, R.V., HUGHS, S.E. EVALUATION OF STATIC PRESSURE DROPS AND PM10 AND TSP EMISSIONS FOR MODIFIED 1D-3D CYCLONES. TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASAE. 1999. V. 42(6). P. 1541-1547. Interpretive Summary: Cyclones are the most cost effective means of controlling particulate emis- sions from cotton gins. The 1D3D cyclone has become the most widely used cyclone to control particulate emissions. However, application of the 1D3D design has resulted in operating problems such as choke ups that can result in downtime for the gin and/or excess dust being emitted into the air. Previous research had indicated several design modifications that could be applied to the 1D3D that might eliminate the operational difficulties ginners are experiencing, as well as reduce particulate emissions below the current level of the 1D3D. This research evaluated the following modi- fications to the standard 1D3D cyclone design in various combinations: 1) a 2D2D inlet, 2) a 2D2D air outlet, 3) a D/3 trash exit, 4) an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash outlet, and 5) a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing particu- -late emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air outlet combine with either the regular D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. For ease of reference, these cyclones are called the USDA 1D3D and the USDA 1D3D with an expansion chamber. The tapered air outlet with the expansion chamber had improved performance over the 1D3D for heavier particulate matter. Static pressure drops measured during this study showed all modifications to have lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D. This implies that emissions can be reduced with less energy input. Benefits learned from the results of this study indicate that modifications can be made to the con- ventional cyclone design that improve performance in reducing emissions as much as 24 to 35% over the 1D3D. The modifications should also help elimi- nate the operational problems encountered when using the 1D3D.
Technical Abstract: Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included: 1) a 2D2D inlet, 2) a 2D2D air outlet, 3) a D/3 trash exit, 4) an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and 5) a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.