Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 28, 2000
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The goal of many plant breeding programs is to increase yield for their respective crop. However, for dry peas in the Palouse Region of the Pacific Northwest, increased production of crop residue, i.e. stems, leaves, etc., is necessary to reduce wind and water erosion of the soil. It is important to maintain and, if possible, increase seed yield while increasing residue production. The current study was conducted to evaluat total aboveground biomass, seed yield and straw production for 390 plant inventory (PI) accessions in the core collection of Pisum germplasm under conventional and zero tillage conditions; the primary production systems used in the region. In addition, the potential for increasing seed yield simultaneously with residue production was evaluated. Greater total aboveground biomass, seed yield and residue were produced under conventional tillage and production by individual PI accessions exceeded that of the standard varieties used for comparison. Seed yield was positively correlated with straw production suggesting that seed yield and straw production can be increased simultaneously. Individual PI accessions with production superior to current varieties can be used to increase the seed and straw production of future varieties.
Technical Abstract: Increased crop yield is the primary goal of many plant breeding programs.In the Pacific Northwest increased production of crop residue is required to increase ground cover to reduce both wind and water erosion of the soil. The current study was conducted to evaluate the range of total aboveground biomass(TAB), seed yield, and straw production from accessions in the Pisum mcore collection grown under conventional and zero tillage systems. In addition, the potential for increasing seed yield and straw production simultaneously was evaluated. Three hundred ninety PI accessions were screened under conventional and zero tillage conditions in 1996 and 1997. TAB ranged from 520 to 8730 kg/ha under conventional tillage and from 140 to 8170 kg/ha under zero tillage. Seed yield ranged from 110 to 3450 kg/ha under conventional tillage and from 40 to 3140 kg/ha under zero tillage. Straw production ranged from 410 to 6060 kg/ha under conventional tillage and 110 to 5670 kg/ha under zero tillage. Overall, the accessions produce greater TAB under coventional tillage. Seed yield was positively correlated with straw production(r=0.81, p<0.1)suggesting that seed yields and straw production can be increased simultaneously. PI 142775, among others, was well adapted to both tillage systems and ranked in the top 20 accessions for the three production variables, TAB, seed yield, and straw production. Future work will focus on incorporating favorable variation into adapted genetic backgrounds,evaluating the mechanisms of adaptation to zero tillage conditions, including improved partitioning between vegetative and reproductive organs late in the season.